1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business
Principal Financial Group, Inc. ("PFG"), along with its consolidated subsidiaries, is a diversified financial services organization engaged in promoting retirement savings and investment and insurance products and services in the U.S. and selected international markets.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements, which include our majority-owned subsidiaries and consolidated variable interest entities ("VIEs"), have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("U.S. GAAP"). Less than majority-owned entities in which we have at least a 20% interest and limited liability companies ("LLCs"), partnerships and real estate joint ventures in which we have at least a 5% interest, are reported on the equity basis in the consolidated statements of financial position as other investments. Investments in LLCs, partnerships and real estate joint ventures in which we have an ownership percentage of 3% to 5% are accounted for under the equity or cost method depending upon the specific facts and circumstances of our ownership and involvement. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. Information included in the notes to the financial statements excludes information applicable to less than majority-owned entities reported on the equity and cost methods, unless otherwise noted.
Reclassifications have been made to prior period financial statements to conform to the December 31, 2010, presentation. See Recent Accounting Pronouncements for impact of new accounting guidance on prior period financial statements.
Principal Life Insurance Company ("Principal Life") operates a closed block ("Closed Block") for the benefit of individual participating dividend-paying policies in force at the time of the 1998 mutual insurance holding company ("MIHC") formation. See Note 6, Closed Block, for further details.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In October 2010, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued authoritative guidance that modifies the definition of the types of costs incurred by insurance entities that can be capitalized in the successful acquisition of new or renewal insurance contracts. Capitalized costs should include incremental direct costs of contract acquisition, as well as certain costs related directly to acquisition activities such as underwriting, policy issuance and processing, medical and inspection and sales force contract selling. This guidance will be effective for us on January 1, 2012, with retrospective application permitted but not required. We are currently evaluating the impact this guidance will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In July 2010, the FASB issued authoritative guidance that requires new and expanded disclosures related to the credit quality of financing receivables and the allowance for credit losses. Reporting entities are required to provide qualitative and quantitative disclosures on the allowance for credit losses, credit quality, impaired loans, modifications and nonaccrual and past due financing receivables. The disclosures are required to be presented on a disaggregated basis by portfolio segment and class of financing receivable. Disclosures required by the guidance that relate to the end of a reporting period were effective for us in our December 31, 2010, consolidated financial statements. See Note 4, Investments, for further details. Disclosures required by the guidance that relate to an activity that occurs during a reporting period will be effective for us on January 1, 2011, and will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. In January 2011, the FASB issued authoritative guidance that deferred indefinitely the disclosures relating to troubled debt restructuring.
In April 2010, the FASB issued authoritative guidance addressing how investments held through the separate accounts of an insurance entity affect the entity's consolidation analysis. This guidance clarifies that an insurance entity should not consider any separate account interests held for the benefit of policyholders in an investment to be the insurer's interests and should not combine those interests with its general account interest in the same investment when assessing the investment for consolidation. This guidance will be effective for us on January 1, 2011, and will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In March 2010, the FASB issued authoritative guidance that amends and clarifies the guidance on evaluation of credit derivatives embedded in beneficial interests in securitized financial assets, including asset-backed securities, credit-linked notes, collateralized loan obligations and collateralized debt obligations ("CDOs"). This guidance eliminates the scope exception for bifurcation of embedded credit derivatives in interests in securitized financial assets, unless they are created solely by subordination of one financial instrument to another. We adopted this guidance effective July 1, 2010, and within the scope of this guidance reclassified fixed maturities with a fair value of $75.3 million, from available-for-sale to trading. The cumulative change in accounting principle related to unrealized losses on these fixed maturities resulted in a net $25.4 million decrease to retained earnings, with a corresponding increase to accumulated other comprehensive income ("AOCI").
In January 2010, the FASB issued authoritative guidance that requires new disclosures related to fair value measurements and clarifies existing disclosure requirements about the level of disaggregation, inputs and valuation techniques. Specifically, reporting entities now must disclose separately the amounts of significant transfers in and out of Level 1 and Level 2 fair value measurements and describe the reasons for the transfers. In addition, in the reconciliation for Level 3 fair value measurements, a reporting entity should present separately information about purchases, sales, issuances and settlements. The guidance clarifies that a reporting entity needs to use judgment in determining the appropriate classes of assets and liabilities for disclosure of fair value measurement, considering the level of disaggregated information required by other applicable U.S. GAAP guidance and should also provide disclosures about the valuation techniques and inputs used to measure fair value for each class of assets and liabilities. This guidance was effective for us on January 1, 2010, except for the disclosures about purchases, sales, issuances and settlements in the reconciliation for Level 3 fair value measurements, which will be effective for us on January 1, 2011. This guidance will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In September 2009, FASB issued authoritative guidance for measuring the fair value of certain alternative investments and to offer investors a practical means for measuring the fair value of investments in certain entities that calculate net asset value per share. This guidance was effective for us on October 1, 2009, and did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2009, the FASB issued authoritative guidance to provide additional guidance on measuring the fair value of liabilities. This guidance clarifies that the quoted price for the identical liability, when traded as an asset in an active market, is also a Level 1 measurement for that liability when no adjustment to the quoted price is required. In the absence of a quoted price in an active market, an entity must use one or more of the following valuation techniques to estimate fair value: (1) a valuation technique that uses a quoted price (a) of an identical liability when traded as an asset or (b) of a similar liability when traded as an asset; or (2) another valuation technique such as (a) a present value technique or (b) a technique based on the amount an entity would pay to transfer the identical liability or would receive to enter into an identical liability. This guidance was effective for us on October 1, 2009, and did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In June 2009, the FASB issued authoritative guidance for the establishment of the FASB Accounting Standards CodificationTM ("Codification") as the source of authoritative accounting principles recognized by the FASB to be applied by nongovernmental entities in the preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP. Rules and interpretive releases of the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") under federal securities laws are also sources of authoritative U.S. GAAP for SEC registrants. All guidance contained in the Codification carries an equal level of authority. This guidance was effective for us on July 1, 2009, and did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In June 2009, the FASB issued authoritative guidance to improve the relevance, representational faithfulness and comparability of the information that a reporting entity provides in its financial reports about a transfer of financial assets; the effects of a transfer on its financial position, financial performance and cash flows; and a transferor's continuing involvement in transferred financial assets. The most significant change is the elimination of the concept of a qualifying special-purpose entity ("QSPE"). Therefore, former QSPEs, as defined under previous accounting standards, should be evaluated for consolidation by reporting entities on and after the effective date in accordance with the applicable consolidation guidance. This guidance was effective for us on January 1, 2010, and did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Also in June 2009, the FASB issued authoritative guidance related to the accounting for VIEs, which amends prior guidance and requires an enterprise to perform an analysis to determine whether the enterprise's variable interest or interests give it a controlling financial interest in a VIE. This analysis identifies the primary beneficiary of a VIE as the enterprise with (1) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the entity's economic performance and (2) the obligation to absorb losses of the entity or the right to receive benefits from the entity that could potentially be significant to the VIE. In addition, this guidance requires ongoing reassessments of whether an enterprise is the primary beneficiary of a VIE. Furthermore, we are required to enhance disclosures that will provide users of financial statements with more transparent information about an enterprise's involvement in a VIE. We adopted this guidance prospectively effective January 1, 2010. Due to the implementation of this guidance, certain previously unconsolidated VIEs were consolidated and certain previously consolidated VIEs were deconsolidated. The cumulative change in accounting principle from adopting this guidance resulted in a net $10.7 million decrease to retained earnings and a net $10.7 million increase to AOCI. In February 2010, the FASB issued an amendment to this guidance. The amendment indefinitely defers the consolidation requirements for reporting enterprises' interests in entities that have the characteristics of investment companies and regulated money market funds. This amendment was effective January 1, 2010, and did not have a material impact to our consolidated financial statements. The required disclosures are included in our consolidated financial statements. See Note 3, Variable Interest Entities, for further details.
In April 2009, the FASB issued authoritative guidance which relates to the recognition and presentation of an other-than-temporary impairment ("OTTI") of securities and requires additional disclosures. The recognition provisions apply only to debt securities classified as available-for-sale and held-to-maturity, while the presentation and disclosure requirements apply to both debt and equity securities. An impaired debt security will be considered other-than-temporarily impaired if a holder has the intent to sell, or it more likely than not will be required to sell prior to recovery of the amortized cost. If a holder of a debt security does not expect recovery of the entire cost basis, even if there is no intention to sell the security, it will be considered an OTTI as well. This guidance also changes how an entity recognizes an OTTI for a debt security by separating the loss between the amount representing the credit loss and the amount relating to other factors, if a holder does not have the intent to sell or it more likely than not will not be required to sell prior to recovery of the amortized cost less any current period credit loss. Credit losses will be recognized in net income and losses relating to other factors will be recognized in other comprehensive income ("OCI"). If the holder has the intent to sell or it more likely than not will be required to sell before its recovery of amortized cost less any current period credit loss, the entire OTTI will continue to be recognized in net income. Furthermore, this guidance requires a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption with a corresponding adjustment to accumulated OCI. We adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2009. The cumulative change in accounting principle from adopting this guidance resulted in a net $9.9 million increase to retained earnings and a corresponding decrease to accumulated OCI. The required disclosures have been included in our consolidated financial statements.
Also in April 2009, the FASB issued authoritative guidance which provides additional information on estimating fair value when the volume and level of activity for an asset or liability have significantly decreased in relation to normal market activity for the asset or liability and clarifies that the use of multiple valuation techniques may be appropriate. It also provides additional guidance on circumstances that may indicate a transaction is not orderly. Further, it requires additional disclosures about fair value measurements in annual and interim reporting periods. We adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2009, and it did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. See Note 14, Fair Value Measurements, for further details.
In January 2009, the FASB issued authoritative guidance related to the assessment of the OTTI of certain beneficial interests in securitized financial assets, which eliminated the requirement that a financial instrument holder's best estimate of cash flows be based upon those that a market participant would use. Instead, this guidance requires the use of management's judgment in the determination of whether it is probable there has been an adverse change in estimated cash flow. This guidance was effective for us on October 1, 2008, and did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In December 2008, the FASB issued authoritative guidance requiring additional disclosures by public entities with continuing involvement in transfers of financial assets to special purpose entities and with variable interests in VIEs. This guidance was effective for us on October 1, 2008. We have included the required disclosures in our consolidated financial statements. See Note 3, Variable Interest Entities for further details.
In September 2008, the FASB issued authoritative guidance (1) requiring disclosures by sellers of credit derivatives, including credit derivatives embedded in a hybrid instrument and (2) requiring an additional disclosure about the current status of the payment/performance risk of a guarantee. This guidance was effective for us on October 1, 2008. We have included the required disclosures in our consolidated financial statements. See Note 5, Derivative Financial Instruments, for further details relating to our credit derivatives.
In March 2008, the FASB issued authoritative guidance requiring (1) qualitative disclosures about objectives and strategies for using derivatives, (2) quantitative disclosures about fair value amounts of gains and losses on derivative instruments and related hedged items and (3) disclosures about credit-risk-related contingent features in derivative instruments. The disclosures are intended to provide users of financial statements with an enhanced understanding of how and why derivative instruments are used, how they are accounted for and the financial statement impacts. We adopted these changes on January 1, 2009. See Note 5, Derivative Financial Instruments, for further details.
In December 2007, the FASB issued authoritative guidance requiring that the acquiring entity in a business combination establish the acquisition-date fair value as the measurement objective for all assets acquired and liabilities assumed, including any noncontrolling interests, and requires the acquirer to disclose additional information needed to more comprehensively evaluate and understand the nature and financial effect of the business combination. In addition, direct acquisition costs are to be expensed. We adopted this guidance on January 1, 2009, and all requirements are applied prospectively.
Also in December 2007, the FASB issued authoritative guidance mandating the following changes to noncontrolling interests:
We adopted this guidance on January 1, 2009. Presentation and disclosure requirements have been applied retrospectively for all periods presented. All other requirements have been applied prospectively.
In February 2007, the FASB issued authoritative guidance permitting entities to choose, at specified election dates, to measure eligible financial instruments and certain other items at fair value that are not currently required to be reported at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses on items for which the fair value option is elected shall be reported in net income. The decision about whether to elect the fair value option (1) is applied instrument by instrument, with certain exceptions (2) is irrevocable and (3) is applied to an entire instrument and not only to specified risks, specific cash flows, or portions of that instrument. This guidance also requires additional disclosures that are intended to facilitate comparisons between entities that choose different measurement attributes for similar assets and liabilities and between assets and liabilities in the financial statements of an entity that selects different measurement attributes for similar assets and liabilities. At the effective date, the fair value option may be elected for eligible items that exist at that date and the effect of the first remeasurement to fair value for those items should be reported as a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings. We adopted this guidance on January 1, 2008, and the resulting cumulative effect of the change in accounting principle was immaterial. Therefore, the pre-tax cumulative effect of the change in accounting principle is reflected in net realized capital gains (losses). Election of this option upon acquisition or assumption of eligible items could introduce period to period volatility in net income.
In September 2006, the FASB issued authoritative guidance related to defined benefit pension plans and other postretirement benefit plans, which eliminated the ability to choose a measurement date by requiring that plan assets and benefit obligations be measured as of the annual balance sheet date. This guidance was effective for us on December 31, 2008. For 2007, we used a measurement date of October 1 for the measurement of plan assets and benefit obligations. Two transition methods were available when implementing the change in measurement date for 2008. We chose the alternative that allowed us to use the October 1, 2007, measurement date as a basis for determining the 2008 expense and transition adjustment. The effect of changing the measurement date resulted in a $0.9 million increase to retained earnings and a $2.0 million decrease to accumulated OCI in the first quarter of 2008.
In September 2006, the FASB issued authoritative guidance for using fair value to measure assets and liabilities, which applies whenever other standards require or permit assets or liabilities to be measured at fair value, but does not expand the use of fair value measurement. This guidance establishes a fair value hierarchy that gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets and the lowest priority to unobservable data, and requires fair value measurements to be separately disclosed by level within the hierarchy. In February 2008, the FASB deferred the effective date of this guidance for one year for nonfinancial assets and nonfinancial liabilities that are recognized or disclosed at fair value on a nonrecurring basis. In February 2008, the FASB issued authoritative guidance excluding instruments covered by lease accounting and its related interpretive guidance from the scope of its fair value measurement guidance. In October 2008, the FASB issued authoritative guidance which clarifies the application of its fair value measurement guidance in an inactive market and provides an illustrative example to demonstrate how the fair value of a financial asset is determined when the market for that financial asset is inactive. Our adoption of the FASB's fair value measurement guidance on January 1, 2008, for assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis and financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. We deferred the adoption for nonfinancial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis until January 1, 2009, which also did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. See Note 14, Fair Value Measurements, for further details.
Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements
The preparation of our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported and disclosed. These estimates and assumptions could change in the future as more information becomes known, which could impact the amounts reported and disclosed in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The most critical estimates include those used in determining:
A description of such critical estimates is incorporated within the discussion of the related accounting policies which follow. In applying these policies, management makes subjective and complex judgments that frequently require estimates about matters that are inherently uncertain. Many of these policies, estimates and related judgments are common in the insurance and financial services industries; others are specific to our businesses and operations. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, money market instruments and other debt issues with a maturity date of three months or less when purchased.
Fixed maturities include bonds, mortgage-backed securities, redeemable preferred stock and certain nonredeemable preferred stock. Equity securities include mutual funds, common stock and nonredeemable preferred stock. We classify fixed maturities and equity securities as either available-for-sale or trading at the time of the purchase and, accordingly, carry them at fair value. See Note 14, Fair Value Measurements, for policies related to the determination of fair value. Unrealized gains and losses related to available-for-sale securities, excluding those in fair value hedging relationships, are reflected in stockholders' equity, net of adjustments related to DPAC, sales inducements, unearned revenue reserves, derivatives in cash flow hedge relationships and applicable income taxes. Unrealized gains and losses related to available-for-sale securities in fair value hedging relationships and mark-to-market adjustments on certain trading securities are reflected in net realized capital gains (losses). We also have trading securities portfolios that support investment strategies that involve the active and frequent purchase and sale of fixed maturities. Mark-to-market adjustments related to these trading securities are reflected in net investment income.
The cost of fixed maturities is adjusted for amortization of premiums and accrual of discounts, both computed using the interest method. The cost of fixed maturities and equity securities is adjusted for declines in value that are other than temporary. Impairments in value deemed to be other than temporary are primarily reported in net income as a component of net realized capital gains (losses), with noncredit impairment losses for certain fixed maturities reported in OCI. See further discussion in Note 4, Investments. For loan-backed and structured securities, we recognize income using a constant effective yield based on currently anticipated cash flows.
Real estate investments are reported at cost less accumulated depreciation. The initial cost bases of properties acquired through loan foreclosures are the lower of the fair market values of the properties at the time of foreclosure or the outstanding loan balance. Buildings and land improvements are generally depreciated on the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of improvements and tenant improvement costs are depreciated on the straight-line method over the term of the related lease. We recognize impairment losses for properties when indicators of impairment are present and a property's expected undiscounted cash flows are not sufficient to recover the property's carrying value. In such cases, the cost bases of the properties are reduced to fair value. Real estate expected to be disposed is carried at the lower of cost or fair value, less cost to sell, with valuation allowances established accordingly and depreciation no longer recognized. The carrying amount of real estate held for sale was $51.9 million and $35.4 million as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Any impairment losses and any changes in valuation allowances are reported in net income.
Commercial and residential mortgage loans are generally reported at cost adjusted for amortization of premiums and accrual of discounts, computed using the interest method, net of valuation allowances. Interest income is accrued on the principal amount of the loan based on the loan's contractual interest rate. Interest income, as well as prepayment of fees and the amortization of the related premium or discount, is reported in net investment income. Any changes in the valuation allowances are reported in net income as net realized capital gains (losses). We measure impairment based upon the difference between carrying value and estimated value less cost to sell. Estimated value is based on either the present value of expected cash flows discounted at the loan's effective interest rate, the loan's observable market price or the fair value of the collateral. If foreclosure is probable, the measurement of any valuation allowance is based upon the fair value of the collateral.
Net realized capital gains and losses on sales of investments are determined on the basis of specific identification. In general, in addition to realized capital gains and losses on investment sales and periodic settlements on derivatives not designated as hedges, we report gains and losses related to the following in net realized capital gains (losses): other than temporary impairments of securities and subsequent recoveries, mark-to-market adjustments on certain trading securities, mark-to-market adjustments on certain seed money investments, fair value and cash flow hedge ineffectiveness, mark-to-market adjustments on derivatives not designated as hedges, changes in the mortgage loan valuation allowance provision and subsequent commercial mortgage loan recoveries and impairments of real estate held for investment. Investment gains and losses on sales of certain real estate held for sale, which do not meet the criteria for classification as a discontinued operation and mark-to-market adjustments on trading securities that support investment strategies that involve the active and frequent purchase and sale of fixed maturities are reported as net investment income and are excluded from net realized capital gains (losses).
Policy loans and other investments, excluding investments in unconsolidated entities, are primarily reported at cost.
Overview. Derivatives are financial instruments whose values are derived from interest rates, foreign exchange rates, financial indices or the values of securities. Derivatives generally used by us include interest rate swaps, interest rate collars, swaptions, futures, currency swaps, currency forwards, credit default swaps and options. Derivatives may be exchange traded or contracted in the over-the-counter market. Derivative positions are either assets or liabilities in the consolidated statements of financial position and are measured at fair value, generally by obtaining quoted market prices or through the use of pricing models. See Note 14, Fair Value Measurements, for policies related to the determination of fair value. Fair values can be affected by changes in interest rates, foreign exchange rates, financial indices, values of securities, credit spreads, and market volatility and liquidity.
Accounting and Financial Statement Presentation. We designate derivatives as either:
Our accounting for the ongoing changes in fair value of a derivative depends on the intended use of the derivative and the designation, as described above, and is determined when the derivative contract is entered into or at the time of redesignation. Hedge accounting is used for derivatives that are specifically designated in advance as hedges and that reduce our exposure to an indicated risk by having a high correlation between changes in the value of the derivatives and the items being hedged at both the inception of the hedge and throughout the hedge period.
Fair Value Hedges. When a derivative is designated as a fair value hedge and is determined to be highly effective, changes in its fair value, along with changes in the fair value of the hedged asset, liability or firm commitment attributable to the hedged risk, are reported in net realized capital gains (losses). Any difference between the net change in fair value of the derivative and the hedged item represents hedge ineffectiveness.
Cash Flow Hedges. When a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedge and is determined to be highly effective, changes in its fair value are recorded as a component of OCI. Any hedge ineffectiveness is recorded immediately in net income. At the time the variability of cash flows being hedged impacts net income, the related portion of deferred gains or losses on the derivative instrument is reclassified and reported in net income.
Net Investment in a Foreign Operation Hedge. When a derivative is used as a hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation, its change in fair value, to the extent effective as a hedge, is recorded as a component of OCI. Any hedge ineffectiveness is recorded immediately in net income. If the foreign operation is sold or upon complete or substantially complete liquidation, the deferred gains or losses on the derivative instrument are reclassified into net income.
Non-Hedge Derivatives. If a derivative does not qualify or is not designated for hedge accounting, all changes in fair value are reported in net income without considering the changes in the fair value of the economically associated assets or liabilities.
Hedge Documentation and Effectiveness Testing. At inception, we formally document all relationships between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as our risk management objective and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. This process includes associating all derivatives designated as fair value or cash flow hedges with specific assets or liabilities on the statement of financial position or with specific firm commitments or forecasted transactions. Effectiveness of the hedge is formally assessed at inception and throughout the life of the hedging relationship. Even if a derivative is highly effective and qualifies for hedge accounting treatment, the hedge might have some ineffectiveness.
We use qualitative and quantitative methods to assess hedge effectiveness. Qualitative methods may include monitoring changes to terms and conditions and counterparty credit ratings. Quantitative methods may include statistical tests including regression analysis and minimum variance and dollar offset techniques.
Termination of Hedge Accounting. We prospectively discontinue hedge accounting when (1) the criteria to qualify for hedge accounting is no longer met, e.g., a derivative is determined to no longer be highly effective in offsetting the change in fair value or cash flows of a hedged item; (2) the derivative expires, is sold, terminated or exercised or (3) we remove the designation of the derivative being the hedging instrument for a fair value or cash flow hedge.
If it is determined that a derivative no longer qualifies as an effective hedge, the derivative will continue to be carried on the consolidated statements of financial position at its fair value, with changes in fair value recognized prospectively in net realized capital gains (losses). The asset or liability under a fair value hedge will no longer be adjusted for changes in fair value pursuant to hedging rules and the existing basis adjustment is amortized to the consolidated statements of operations line associated with the asset or liability. The component of OCI related to discontinued cash flow hedges that are no longer highly effective is amortized to the consolidated statements of operations consistent with the net income impacts of the original hedged cash flows. If a cash flow hedge is discontinued because it is probable the hedged forecasted transaction will not occur, the deferred gain or loss is immediately reclassified from OCI into net income.
Embedded Derivatives. We purchase and issue certain financial instruments and products that contain a derivative that is embedded in the financial instrument or product. We assess whether this embedded derivative is clearly and closely related to the asset or liability that serves as its host contract. If we deem that the embedded derivative's terms are not clearly and closely related to the host contract, and a separate instrument with the same terms would qualify as a derivative instrument, the derivative is bifurcated from that contract and held at fair value on the consolidated statements of financial position, with changes in fair value reported in net income.
Contractholder and Policyholder Liabilities
Contractholder and policyholder liabilities (contractholder funds, future policy benefits and claims and other policyholder funds) include reserves for investment contracts and reserves for universal life, term life insurance, participating traditional individual life insurance, group life insurance, accident and health insurance and disability income policies, as well as a provision for dividends on participating policies.
Investment contracts are contractholders' funds on deposit with us and generally include reserves for pension and annuity contracts. Reserves on investment contracts are equal to the cumulative deposits less any applicable charges and withdrawals plus credited interest. Reserves for universal life insurance contracts are equal to cumulative deposits less charges plus credited interest, which represents the account balances that accrue to the benefit of the policyholders.
We hold additional reserves on certain long duration contracts where benefit features result in gains in early years followed by losses in later years, universal life/variable universal life contracts that contain no lapse guarantee features, or annuities with guaranteed minimum death benefits.
Reserves for nonparticipating term life insurance and disability income contracts are computed on a basis of assumed investment yield, mortality, morbidity and expenses, including a provision for adverse deviation, which generally varies by plan, year of issue and policy duration. Investment yield is based on our experience. Mortality, morbidity and withdrawal rate assumptions are based on our experience and are periodically reviewed against both industry standards and experience.
Reserves for participating life insurance contracts are based on the net level premium reserve for death and endowment policy benefits. This net level premium reserve is calculated based on dividend fund interest rates and mortality rates guaranteed in calculating the cash surrender values described in the contract.
Participating business represented approximately 16%, 17% and 17% of our life insurance in force and 53%, 55% and 57% of the number of life insurance policies in force at December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. Participating business represented approximately 49%, 52% and 54% of life insurance premiums for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. The amount of dividends to policyholders is declared annually by Principal Life's Board of Directors. The amount of dividends to be paid to policyholders is determined after consideration of several factors including interest, mortality, morbidity and other expense experience for the year and judgment as to the appropriate level of statutory surplus to be retained by Principal Life. At the end of the reporting period, Principal Life establishes a dividend liability for the pro rata portion of the dividends expected to be paid on or before the next policy anniversary date.
Some of our policies and contracts require payment of fees or other policyholder assessments in advance for services that will be rendered over the estimated lives of the policies and contracts. These payments are established as unearned revenue liabilities upon receipt and included in other policyholder funds in the consolidated statements of financial position. These unearned revenue reserves are amortized to operations over the estimated lives of these policies and contracts in relation to the emergence of estimated gross profit margins.
The liability for unpaid accident and health claims is an estimate of the ultimate net cost of reported and unreported losses not yet settled. This liability is estimated using actuarial analyses and case basis evaluations. Although considerable variability is inherent in such estimates, we believe that the liability for unpaid claims is adequate. These estimates are continually reviewed and, as adjustments to this liability become necessary, such adjustments are reflected in net income.
Recognition of Premiums and Other Considerations, Fees and Other Revenues and Benefits
Traditional individual life insurance products include those products with fixed and guaranteed premiums and benefits and consist principally of whole life and term life insurance policies. Premiums from these products are recognized as premium revenue when due. Related policy benefits and expenses for individual life products are associated with earned premiums and result in the recognition of profits over the expected term of the policies and contracts.
Immediate annuities with life contingencies include products with fixed and guaranteed annuity considerations and benefits and consist principally of group and individual single premium annuities with life contingencies. Annuity considerations from these products are recognized as revenue. However, the collection of these annuity considerations does not represent the completion of the earnings process, as we establish annuity reserves, using estimates for mortality and investment assumptions, which include provision for adverse deviation as required by U.S. GAAP. We anticipate profits to emerge over the life of the annuity products as we earn investment income, pay benefits and release reserves.
Group life and health insurance premiums are generally recorded as premium revenue over the term of the coverage. Certain group contracts contain experience premium refund provisions based on a pre-defined formula that reflects their claim experience. Experience premium refunds reduce revenue over the term of the coverage and are adjusted to reflect current experience. Related policy benefits and expenses for group life and health insurance products are associated with earned premiums and result in the recognition of profits over the term of the policies and contracts. Fees for contracts providing claim processing or other administrative services are recorded as revenue over the period the service is provided.
Universal life-type policies are insurance contracts with terms that are not fixed. Amounts received as payments for such contracts are not reported as premium revenues. Revenues for universal life-type insurance contracts consist of policy charges for the cost of insurance, policy initiation and administration, surrender charges and other fees that have been assessed against policy account values and investment income. Policy benefits and claims that are charged to expense include interest credited to contracts and benefit claims incurred in the period in excess of related policy account balances.
Investment contracts do not subject us to significant risks arising from policyholder mortality or morbidity and consist primarily of Guaranteed Investment Contracts ("GICs"), funding agreements and certain deferred annuities. Amounts received as payments for investment contracts are established as investment contract liability balances and are not reported as premium revenues. Revenues for investment contracts consist of investment income and policy administration charges. Investment contract benefits that are charged to expense include benefit claims incurred in the period in excess of related investment contract liability balances and interest credited to investment contract liability balances.
Fees and other revenues are earned for asset management services provided to retail and institutional clients based largely upon contractual rates applied to the market value of the client's portfolio. Additionally, fees and other revenues are earned for administrative services performed including recordkeeping and reporting services for retirement savings plans. Fees and other revenues received for performance of asset management and administrative services are recognized as revenue when earned, typically when the service is performed.
Deferred Policy Acquisition Costs
Commissions and other costs (underwriting, issuance and field expenses) that vary with and are primarily related to the acquisition of new and renewal insurance policies and investment contract business are capitalized to the extent recoverable. Maintenance costs and acquisition costs that are not deferrable are charged to operations as incurred.
DPAC for universal life-type insurance contracts, participating life insurance policies and certain investment contracts are being amortized over the lives of the policies and contracts in relation to the emergence of estimated gross profit margins. This amortization is adjusted in the current period when estimated gross profits are revised. For individual variable life insurance, individual variable annuities and group annuities which have separate account equity investment options, we utilize a mean reversion method (reversion to the mean assumption), a common industry practice, to determine the future domestic equity market growth assumption used for the amortization of DPAC. The DPAC of nonparticipating term life insurance and individual disability policies are being amortized over the premium-paying period of the related policies using assumptions consistent with those used in computing policyholder liabilities.
DPAC are subject to recoverability testing at the time of policy issue and loss recognition testing on an annual basis, or when an event occurs that may warrant loss recognition. If loss recognition is necessary, DPAC would be written off to the extent that it is determined that future policy premiums and investment income or gross profits are not adequate to cover related losses and expenses.
Deferred Policy Acquisition Costs on Internal Replacements
All insurance and investment contract modifications and replacements are reviewed to determine if the internal replacement results in a substantially changed contract. If so, the acquisition costs, sales inducements and unearned revenue associated with the new contract are deferred and amortized over the lifetime of the new contract. In addition, the existing DPAC, sales inducement costs and unearned revenue balances associated with the replaced contract are written off. If an internal replacement results in a substantially unchanged contract, the acquisition costs, sales inducements and unearned revenue associated with the new contract are immediately recognized in the period incurred. In addition, the existing DPAC, sales inducement costs or unearned revenue balance associated with the replaced contract is not written off, but instead is carried over to the new contract.
Long-term debt includes notes payable, nonrecourse mortgages and other debt with a maturity date greater than one year at the date of issuance. Current maturities of long-term debt are classified as long-term debt in our statement of financial position.
We enter into reinsurance agreements with other companies in the normal course of business. We may assume reinsurance from or cede reinsurance to other companies. Assets and liabilities related to reinsurance ceded are reported on a gross basis. Premiums and expenses are reported net of reinsurance ceded. The cost of reinsurance related to long-duration contracts is accounted for over the life of the underlying reinsured policies using assumptions consistent with those used to account for the underlying policies. We are contingently liable with respect to reinsurance ceded to other companies in the event the reinsurer is unable to meet the obligations it has assumed. At December 31, 2010 and 2009, our largest exposures to a single third-party reinsurer in our individual life insurance business was $23.3 billion and $22.0 billion of life insurance in force, representing 15% and 14% of total net individual life insurance in force, respectively. The financial statement exposure is limited to the reinsurance recoverable related to this single third party reinsurer, which was $27.5 million and $26.8 million at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively.
The effects of reinsurance on premiums and other considerations and policy and contract benefits were as follows:
The separate account assets presented in the consolidated financial statements represent the fair value of funds that are separately administered by us for contracts with equity, real estate and fixed income investments. The separate account contract owner, rather than us, bears the investment risk of these funds. The separate account assets are legally segregated and are not subject to claims that arise out of any of our other business. We receive fees for mortality, withdrawal and expense risks, as well as administrative, maintenance and investment advisory services that are included in the consolidated statements of operations. Net deposits, net investment income and realized and unrealized capital gains and losses on the separate accounts are not reflected in the consolidated statements of operations.
At December 31, 2010 and 2009, the separate accounts include a separate account valued at $221.7 million and $191.5 million, respectively, which primarily includes shares of our stock that were allocated and issued to eligible participants of qualified employee benefit plans administered by us as part of the policy credits issued under our 2001 demutualization. These shares are included in both basic and diluted earnings per share calculations. In the consolidated statements of financial position, the separate account shares are recorded at fair value and are reported as separate account assets with a corresponding separate account liability to eligible participants of the qualified plan. Changes in fair value of the separate account shares are reflected in both the separate account assets and separate account liabilities and do not impact our results of operations.
We file a U.S. consolidated income tax return that includes all of our qualifying subsidiaries. In addition, we file income tax returns in all states and foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct business. Our policy of allocating income tax expenses and benefits to companies in the group is generally based upon pro rata contribution of taxable income or operating losses. We are taxed at corporate rates on taxable income based on existing tax laws. Current income taxes are charged or credited to net income based upon amounts estimated to be payable or recoverable as a result of taxable operations for the current year. Deferred income taxes are provided for the tax effect of temporary differences in the financial reporting and income tax bases of assets and liabilities and net operating losses using enacted income tax rates and laws. The effect on deferred income tax assets and deferred income tax liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in operations in the period in which the change is enacted.
Assets and liabilities of our foreign subsidiaries and affiliates denominated in non-U.S. dollars, where the U.S. dollar is not the functional currency, are translated into U.S. dollar equivalents at the year-end spot foreign exchange rates. Resulting translation adjustments are reported as a component of stockholders' equity, along with any related hedge and tax effects. Revenues and expenses for these entities are translated at the average exchange rates for the year. Revenue, expense and other foreign currency transaction and translation adjustments that affect cash flows are reported in net income, along with related hedge and tax effects.
Goodwill and Other Intangibles
Goodwill and other intangible assets include the cost of acquired subsidiaries in excess of the fair value of the net tangible assets recorded in connection with acquisitions. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized. Rather, they are tested for impairment during the fourth quarter each year, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. Goodwill is tested at the reporting unit level to which it was assigned. A reporting unit is an operating segment or a business one level below that operating segment, if financial information is prepared and regularly reviewed by management at that level. Once goodwill has been assigned to a reporting unit, it is no longer associated with a particular acquisition; therefore, all of the activities within a reporting unit, whether acquired or organically grown, are available to support the goodwill value. Impairment testing for indefinite-lived intangible assets consists of a comparison of the fair value of the intangible asset with its carrying value.
Intangible assets with a finite useful life are amortized as related benefits emerge and are reviewed periodically for indicators of impairment in value. If facts and circumstances suggest possible impairment, the sum of the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset is compared to the current carrying value of the asset. If the undiscounted future cash flows are less than the carrying value, an impairment loss is recognized for the excess of the carrying amount of assets over their fair value.
Earnings Per Common Share
Basic earnings per common share is calculated by dividing income available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period and excludes the dilutive effect of equity awards. Diluted earnings per common share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if dilutive securities, such as options and non-vested stock grants, were exercised or resulted in the issuance of common stock.
2. Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
The changes in the carrying amount of goodwill reported in our segments were as follows:
On September 30, 2010, we announced our decision to exit the group medical insurance business. This event constituted a substantive change in circumstances that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of our group medical insurance reporting unit below its carrying amount. Accordingly, we performed an interim goodwill impairment test as of September 30, 2010. As a result of the shortened period of projected cash flows, we determined that the goodwill related to this reporting unit within our Corporate operating segment was impaired and it was written down to a value of zero. We recorded a $43.6 million pre-tax impairment loss as an operating expense in the consolidated statements of operations during the year ended December 31, 2010.
Finite Lived Intangible Assets
Amortized intangible assets that continue to be subject to amortization over a weighted average remaining expected life of 12 years were as follows:
During 2010, we fully amortized other finite lived intangible assets of $1.7 million.
Present Value of Future Profits. Present value of future profits ("PVFP") represents the present value of estimated future profits to be generated from existing insurance contracts in-force at the date of acquisition and is amortized over the expected policy or contract duration in relation to estimated gross profits. The PVFP asset and amortization may be adjusted if revisions to estimated gross profits occur.
The changes in the carrying amount of PVFP, reported in our Principal International segment were as follows (in millions):
At December 31, 2010, the estimated amortization expense, net of interest accrued, related to PVFP for the next five years is as follows (in millions):
Other Finite Lived Intangible Assets. During 2010, we recorded a $1.6 million pre-tax impairment loss as an operating expense related to finite lived intangible assets with a gross carrying amount of $6.0 million and $4.4 million of accumulated amortization at the time of impairment resulting from our decision to exit the group medical insurance business. During 2009 and 2008, we recognized an impairment of $6.5 million and $12.3 million, respectively, associated with a customer-based intangible acquired as part of our acquisition of WM Advisors, Inc. This impairment had no impact on our consolidated statement of operations for the Retirement and Investor Services segment, as the cash flows associated with this intangible are credited to an outside party.
The amortization expense for intangible assets with finite useful lives was $18.9 million, $35.2 million and $44.6 million for 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. At December 31, 2010, the estimated amortization expense for the next five years is as follows (in millions):
Indefinite Lived Intangible Assets
The net carrying amount of unamortized indefinite lived intangible assets was $668.8 million and $668.6 million as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. As of both December 31, 2010 and 2009, $608.0 million relates to investment management contracts associated with our December 31, 2006, acquisition of WM Advisors, Inc.
3. Variable Interest Entities
We have relationships with and may have a variable interest in various types of special purpose entities. Following is a discussion of our interest in entities that meet the definition of a VIE. When we are the primary beneficiary we are required to consolidate the entity in our financial statements. On January 1, 2010, we adopted authoritative guidance that changed the method of determining the primary beneficiary of a VIE. Prior to January 1, 2010, the primary beneficiary was the enterprise who absorbed the majority of the entity's expected losses, received a majority of the expected residual returns or both. The new guidance identifies the primary beneficiary of a VIE as the enterprise with (1) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the entity's economic performance and (2) the obligation to absorb losses of the entity or the right to receive benefits from the entity that could potentially be significant to the VIE. We assess whether we are the primary beneficiary of VIEs we have relationships with on an ongoing basis. See further discussion of the adoption in Note 1, Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies.
Consolidated Variable Interest Entities
We contributed undated subordinated floating rate notes to three grantor trusts. The trusts separated the cash flows by issuing an interest-only certificate and a residual certificate related to each note contributed. Each interest-only certificate entitles the holder to interest on the stated note for a specified term, while the residual certificate entitles the holder to interest payments subsequent to the term of the interest-only certificate and to all principal payments. We retained the interest-only certificates and the residual certificates were subsequently sold to third parties.
We have determined these grantor trusts are VIEs due to insufficient equity to sustain them. As our interest-only certificates are exposed to the majority of the risk of loss due to interest rate risk, we determined we were the primary beneficiary prior to January 1, 2010. Beginning January 1, 2010, we determined we remain the primary beneficiary as a result of our contribution of securities into the trusts.
Collateralized Private Investment Vehicles
We invest in synthetic CDOs, collateralized bond obligations, collateralized loan obligations, collateralized commodity obligations and other collateralized structures, which are VIEs due to insufficient equity to sustain the entities (collectively known as "collateralized private investment vehicles"). The performance of the notes of these structures is primarily linked to a synthetic portfolio by derivatives; each note has a specific loss attachment and detachment point. The notes and related derivatives are collateralized by a pool of permitted investments. The investments are held by a trustee and can only be liquidated to settle obligations of the trusts. These obligations primarily include derivatives, financial guarantees and the notes due at maturity or termination of the trusts.
Prior to January 1, 2010, we determined we were the primary beneficiary of a certain number of these entities due to the nature of our direct investment in the VIEs. As of December 31, 2009, we consolidated five collateralized private investment vehicles with assets of $135.6 million. Upon adoption of the new accounting guidance as of January 1, 2010, we determined we were no longer the primary beneficiary of three of these entities with assets of $65.4 million. For these three entities, we do not control the decisions affecting the economic performance of the entities and we were not involved with the design of the entities. As of December 31, 2010, we continue to hold $53.9 million of investments in these entities classified on the consolidated statements of financial position as fixed maturities, available-for-sale or fixed maturities, trading. We also determined we are the primary beneficiary of two additional collateralized private investment vehicles. For all the collateralized structures consolidated as of December 31, 2010, we are the primary beneficiary because we act as the investment manager of the underlying portfolio and we have an ownership interest.
In October 2009, a synthetic CDO we had previously consolidated was terminated. During the year ended December 31, 2009, we recognized a pre-tax gain of $49.8 million related to the change in fair value and termination of the credit default swaps within the VIE. We were considered the primary beneficiary due to our direct investment in the VIE and management of the synthetic reference portfolios.
Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities
In September 2000, we sold commercial mortgage loans to a real estate mortgage investment conduit trust. The trust issued various commercial mortgage-backed securities ("CMBS") certificates using the cash flows of the underlying commercial mortgages it purchased. Prior to January 1, 2010, this entity was scoped out of the consolidation guidance as a QSPE. Based on the new accounting guidance, the previous scope exception for QSPEs no longer exists and this entity is now a VIE due to the entity having insufficient equity to sustain itself. We have determined we are the primary beneficiary as we retained the special servicing role for the assets within the trust as well as the ownership of the bond class which controls the unilateral kick out rights of the special servicer.
We are a general partner with an insignificant equity ownership in various hedge funds. These entities are deemed VIEs due to the equity owners not having decision-making ability. Before January 1, 2010, we consolidated these VIEs due to our related parties' ownership. Beginning January 1, 2010, we continue to consolidate these entities due to our control through our management relationship, related party ownership and our fee structure in certain of these funds. These entities contain various fixed maturities held as available-for-sale and trading and equity securities held as trading.
The carrying amounts of our consolidated VIE assets, which can only be used to settle obligations of consolidated VIEs, and liabilities of consolidated VIEs for which creditors do not have recourse are as follows:
We did not provide financial or other support to investees designated as VIEs for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009.
Unconsolidated Variable Interest Entities
We hold a variable interest in a number of VIEs where we are not the primary beneficiary. Our investments in securities issued by these VIEs are reported in fixed maturities, available-for-sale and fixed maturities, trading in the consolidated statements of financial position and are described below.
VIEs include CMBS, residential mortgage-backed securities and asset-backed securities. All of these entities were deemed VIEs upon the removal of the QSPE scope exception because the equity within these entities is insufficient to sustain them. We currently are not the primary beneficiary in any of the entities within these categories of investments. This determination was based primarily on the fact we do not own the class of security that controls the unilateral right to replace the special servicer or equivalent function.
As previously discussed, we invest in several types of collateralized private investment vehicles, which are VIEs. These include cash and synthetic structures that we do not manage. We are currently not the primary beneficiary of these collateralized private investment vehicles primarily because we do not control the economic performance of the entities and were not involved with the design of the entities.
We have invested in various VIE trusts as a debt holder. All of these entities are classified as VIEs due to insufficient equity to sustain them. Prior to January 1, 2010, we had performed a quantitative analysis and concluded that although we held a significant variable interest in these entities we were not the primary beneficiary due to lack of majority of the risk of loss or because they were scoped out as a QSPE. Beginning January 1, 2010, we concluded we are not the primary beneficiary primarily because we do not control the economic performance of the entities and were not involved with the design of the entities.
Prior to January 1, 2010, we were only required to disclose information about carrying value and maximum loss exposure for our significant unconsolidated VIEs. The carrying value and maximum loss exposure for our unconsolidated VIEs as of December 31, 2010, and for our significant unconsolidated VIEs as of December 31, 2009, were as follows:
Sponsored Investment Funds
We are the investment manager for certain money market mutual funds that are deemed to be VIEs. We are not the primary beneficiary of these VIEs since our involvement is limited primarily to being a service provider, and our variable interest does not absorb the majority of the variability of the entities' net assets. As of December 31, 2010, these VIEs held $1.7 billion in total assets. During 2010, we chose to contribute $3.2 million to these VIEs for competitive reasons and have no contractual obligation to further contribute to the funds.
We provide asset management and other services to certain investment structures that are considered VIEs as we generally earn management fees and in some instances performance based fees. We are not the primary beneficiary of these entities as we do not have the obligation to absorb losses of the entities that could be potentially significant to the VIE or the right to receive benefits from these entities that could be potentially significant.
Fixed Maturities and Equity Securities
The amortized cost, gross unrealized gains and losses, other-than-temporary impairments in AOCI and fair value of fixed maturities and equity securities available-for-sale are summarized as follows:
The amortized cost and fair value of fixed maturities available-for-sale at December 31, 2010, by expected maturity, were as follows:
Actual maturities may differ because borrowers may have the right to call or prepay obligations. Our portfolio is diversified by industry, issuer and asset class. Credit concentrations are managed to established limits.
Net Investment Income
Major categories of net investment income are summarized as follows:
Net Realized Capital Gains and Losses
The major components of net realized capital gains (losses) on investments are summarized as follows:
Proceeds from sales of investments (excluding call and maturity proceeds) in fixed maturities, available-for-sale were $1.6 billion, $3.3 billion and $1.2 billion in 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
We have a process in place to identify fixed maturity and equity securities that could potentially have a credit impairment that is other than temporary. This process involves monitoring market events that could impact issuers' credit ratings, business climate, management changes, litigation and government actions and other similar factors. This process also involves monitoring late payments, pricing levels, downgrades by rating agencies, key financial ratios, financial statements, revenue forecasts and cash flow projections as indicators of credit issues.
During first quarter 2009, we adopted authoritative guidance that changed the recognition and presentation of other-than-temporary impairments. See further discussion of the adoption in Note 1, Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies. The recognition provisions of the guidance apply only to debt securities classified as available-for-sale and held-to-maturity, while the presentation and disclosure requirements apply to both debt and equity securities.
Each reporting period, all securities are reviewed to determine whether an other-than-temporary decline in value exists and whether losses should be recognized. We consider relevant facts and circumstances in evaluating whether a credit or interest rate-related impairment of a security is other than temporary. Relevant facts and circumstances considered include: (1) the extent and length of time the fair value has been below cost; (2) the reasons for the decline in value; (3) the financial position and access to capital of the issuer, including the current and future impact of any specific events; (4) for structured securities, the adequacy of the expected cash flows; (5) for fixed maturities, our intent to sell a security or whether it is more likely than not we will be required to sell the security before the recovery of its amortized cost which, in some cases, may extend to maturity and (6) for equity securities, our ability and intent to hold the security for a period of time that allows for the recovery in value. Prior to 2009, our ability and intent to hold fixed maturities for a period of time that allowed for a recovery in value was considered rather than our intent to sell these securities. To the extent we determine that a security is deemed to be other than temporarily impaired, an impairment loss is recognized.
Impairment losses on equity securities are recognized in net income and are measured as the difference between amortized cost and fair value. The way in which impairment losses on fixed maturities are now recognized in the financial statements is dependent on the facts and circumstances related to the specific security. If we intend to sell a security or it is more likely than not that we would be required to sell a security before the recovery of its amortized cost, less any current period credit loss, we recognize an other-than-temporary impairment in net income for the difference between amortized cost and fair value. If we do not expect to recover the amortized cost basis, we do not plan to sell the security and if it is not more likely than not that we would be required to sell a security before the recovery of its amortized cost, less any current period credit loss, the recognition of the other-than-temporary impairment is bifurcated. We recognize the credit loss portion in net income and the noncredit loss portion in OCI. Prior to 2009, other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturities were recorded in net income in their entirety and the amount recognized was the difference between amortized cost and fair value.
We estimate the amount of the credit loss component of a fixed maturity security impairment as the difference between amortized cost and the present value of the expected cash flows of the security. The present value is determined using the best estimate cash flows discounted at the effective interest rate implicit to the security at the date of purchase or the current yield to accrete an asset-backed or floating rate security. The methodology and assumptions for establishing the best estimate cash flows vary depending on the type of security. The asset-backed securities cash flow estimates are based on security specific facts and circumstances that may include collateral characteristics, expectations of delinquency and default rates, loss severity and prepayment speeds and structural support, including subordination and guarantees. The corporate security cash flow estimates are derived from scenario-based outcomes of expected corporate restructurings or liquidations using bond specific facts and circumstances including timing, security interests and loss severity.
Total other-than-temporary impairment losses, net of recoveries from the sale of previously impaired securities, were as follows:
The change in accumulated credit losses associated with other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturities for which an amount related to credit losses was recognized in net realized capital gains (losses) and an amount related to noncredit losses was recognized in OCI ("bifurcated OTTI") is summarized as follows:
The following table provides a rollforward of accumulated credit losses for fixed maturities with bifurcated credit losses. The purpose of the table is to provide detail of (1) additions to the bifurcated credit loss amounts recognized in net realized capital gains (losses) during the period and (2) decrements for previously recognized bifurcated credit losses where the loss is no longer bifurcated and/or there has been a positive change in expected cash flows or accretion of the bifurcated credit loss amount.
Gross Unrealized Losses for Fixed Maturities and Equity Securities
For fixed maturities and equity securities available-for-sale with unrealized losses, including other-than-temporary impairment losses reported in OCI, the gross unrealized losses and fair value, aggregated by investment category and length of time that individual securities have been in a continuous unrealized loss position are summarized as follows:
Of the total amounts, Principal Life's consolidated portfolio represented $9,914.2 million in available-for-sale fixed maturities with gross unrealized losses of $1,445.3 million. Principal Life's consolidated portfolio consists of fixed maturities where 77% were investment grade (rated AAA through BBB-) with an average price of 87 (carrying value/amortized cost) at December 31, 2010. Gross unrealized losses in our fixed maturities portfolio decreased during the year ended December 31, 2010, due to a decline in interest rates and a tightening of credit spreads primarily in the corporate and commercial mortgage-backed securities sectors.
For those securities that had been in a loss position for less than twelve months, Principal Life's consolidated portfolio held 534 securities with a carrying value of $4,112.3 million and unrealized losses of $95.7 million reflecting an average price of 98 at December 31, 2010. Of this portfolio, 94% was investment grade (rated AAA through BBB-) at December 31, 2010, with associated unrealized losses of $88.7 million. The losses on these securities can primarily be attributed to changes in market interest rates and changes in credit spreads since the securities were acquired.
For those securities that had been in a continuous loss position greater than or equal to twelve months, Principal Life's consolidated portfolio held 773 securities with a carrying value of $5,801.9 million and unrealized losses of $1,349.6 million. The average rating of this portfolio was BBB with an average price of 81 at December 31, 2010. Of the $1,349.6 million in unrealized losses, the commercial mortgage-backed securities sector accounts for $695.8 million in unrealized losses with an average price of 63 and an average credit rating of BBB. The remaining unrealized losses consist primarily of $444.1 million within the corporate sector at December 31, 2010. The average price of the corporate sector was 89 and the average credit rating was BBB. The losses on these securities can primarily be attributed to changes in market interest rates and changes in credit spreads since the securities were acquired.
Because it was not our intent to sell the fixed maturity available-for-sale securities with unrealized losses and it was not more likely than not that we would be required to sell these securities before recovery of the amortized cost, which may be maturity, we did not consider these investments to be other-than-temporarily impaired at December 31, 2010.
Of the total amounts, Principal Life's consolidated portfolio represented $14,979.2 million in available-for-sale fixed maturities with unrealized losses of $2,928.9 million. Principal Life's consolidated portfolio consists of fixed maturities where 83% were investment grade (rated AAA through BBB-) with an average price of 84 (carrying value/amortized cost) at December 31, 2009. Due to the credit disruption that began in the last half of 2007 and continued into first quarter of 2009, which reduced liquidity and led to wider credit spreads, we saw an increase in unrealized losses in our securities portfolio. The unrealized losses were more pronounced in the Corporate sector and in structured products, such as commercial mortgage-backed securities, collateralized debt obligations and asset-backed securities (included in other debt obligations). During the second quarter of 2009 and continuing through the end of the year, a narrowing of credit spreads and improvement in liquidity resulted in a decrease in the unrealized losses in our securities portfolio relative to year-end 2008.
For those securities that had been in a loss position for less than twelve months, Principal Life's consolidated portfolio held 406 securities with a carrying value of $3,739.3 million and unrealized losses of $100.5 million reflecting an average price of 97 at December 31, 2009. Of this portfolio, 97% was investment grade (rated AAA through BBB-) at December 31, 2009, with associated unrealized losses of $82.7 million. The losses on these securities can primarily be attributed to changes in market interest rates and changes in credit spreads since the securities were acquired.
For those securities that had been in a continuous loss position greater than or equal to twelve months, Principal Life's consolidated portfolio held 1,481 securities with a carrying value of $11,239.9 million and unrealized losses of $2,828.4 million. The average rating of this portfolio was BBB+ with an average price of 80 at December 31, 2009. Of the $2,828.4 million in unrealized losses, the commercial mortgage-backed securities sector accounts for $1,302.5 million in unrealized losses with an average price of 63 and an average credit rating of AA-. The remaining unrealized losses consist primarily of $993.5 million within the Corporate sector at December 31, 2009. The average price of the Corporate sector was 88 and the average credit rating was BBB. The losses on these securities can primarily be attributed to changes in market interest rates and changes in credit spreads since the securities were acquired.
Because it was not our intent to sell the fixed maturity available-for-sale securities with unrealized losses and it was not more likely than not that we would be required to sell these securities before recovery of the amortized cost, which may be maturity, we did not consider these investments to be other-than-temporarily impaired at December 31, 2009.
Net Unrealized Gains and Losses on Available-for-Sale Securities and Derivative Instruments
The net unrealized gains and losses on investments in fixed maturities available-for-sale, equity securities available-for-sale and derivative instruments are reported as a separate component of stockholders' equity. The cumulative amount of net unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities and derivative instruments net of adjustments related to DPAC, sales inducements, unearned revenue reserves, changes in policyholder liabilities and applicable income taxes was as follows:
Mortgage loans consist of commercial and residential mortgage loans. We evaluate risks inherent in our commercial mortgage loans in two classes: (1) brick and mortar property loans, where we analyze the property's rent payments as support for the loan, and (2) credit tenant loans ("CTL"), where we rely on the credit analysis of the tenant for the repayment of the loan. We evaluate risks inherent in our residential mortgage loan portfolio in two classes: (1) home equity mortgages and (2) first lien mortgages. The carrying amount of our mortgage loan portfolio was as follows:
Our commercial mortgage loan portfolio consists primarily of non-recourse, fixed rate mortgages on fully or near fully leased properties. Commercial mortgage loans represent a primary area of credit risk exposure.
Our commercial mortgage loan portfolio is diversified by geographic region and specific collateral property type as follows:
Our residential mortgage loan portfolio is composed of home equity mortgages with an amortized cost of $719.3 million and $912.2 million and first lien mortgages with an amortized cost of $837.3 million and $834.2 million as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Most of our residential home equity mortgages are concentrated in the United States and are generally second lien mortgages comprised of closed-end loans and lines of credit. The majority of our first lien loans are concentrated in the Chilean market.
Mortgage Loan Credit Monitoring
Commercial Credit Risk Profile Based on Internal Rating
We actively monitor and manage our commercial mortgage loan portfolio. All commercial mortgage loans are analyzed regularly and substantially all are internally rated, based on a proprietary risk rating cash flow model, in order to monitor the financial quality of these assets. The model stresses expected cash flows at various levels and at different points in time depending on the durability of the income stream, which includes our assessment of factors such as location (macro and micro markets), tenant quality and lease expirations. Our internal rating analysis results in expected credit losses comparable to equivalent bond ratings. Internal ratings on commercial mortgage loans are updated at least annually and potentially more often for certain loans with material changes in collateral value or occupancy and for loans on an internal "watch list".
Commercial mortgage loans that require more frequent and detailed attention than other loans in our portfolio are identified and placed on an internal "watch list". Among the criteria that would indicate a potential problem are imbalances in ratios of loan to value or contract rents to debt service, major tenant vacancies or bankruptcies, borrower sponsorship problems, late payments, delinquent taxes and loan relief/restructuring requests.
Our commercial mortgage loan portfolio by credit risk, as determined by our internal rating system expressed in terms of an S&P bond equivalent rating, was as follows:
Residential Credit Risk Profile Based on Performance Status
Our residential mortgage loan portfolio is monitored based on performance of the loans. Monitoring on a residential mortgage loan increases when the loan is delinquent or earlier if there is an indication of impairment. We define non-performing residential mortgage loans as loans 90 days or greater delinquent or on non-accrual status.
Our performing and non-performing residential mortgage loans were as follows:
Non-Accrual Mortgage Loans
Commercial and residential mortgage loans are placed on non-accrual status if we have concern regarding the collectability of future payments. Factors considered may include conversations with the borrower, loss of major tenant, bankruptcy of borrower or major tenant, decreased property cash flow for commercial mortgage loans or number of days past due for residential mortgage loans. Based on an assessment as to the collectability of the principal, a determination is made to apply any payments received either against the principal or according to the contractual terms of the loan. Accrual of interest resumes after factors resulting in doubts about collectability have improved. Residential first lien mortgages in the Chilean market are carried on accrual for longer than domestic loans as assessment of collectability is based on the nature of the loans and collection practices in that market.
Mortgage loans on non-accrual status were as follows:
The aging of mortgage loans and mortgage loans that were 90 days or more past due and still accruing interest were as follows:
Mortgage Loan Valuation Allowance
We establish a valuation allowance to provide for the risk of credit losses inherent in our portfolio. The valuation allowance includes loan specific reserves for loans that are deemed to be impaired as well as reserves for pools of loans with similar risk characteristics where a property risk or market specific risk has not been identified but for which we expect to incur a loss. Mortgage loans on real estate are considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that we will be unable to collect all amounts due according to contractual terms of the loan agreement. When we determine that a loan is impaired, a valuation allowance is established equal to the difference between the carrying amount of the mortgage loan and the estimated value reduced by the cost to sell. Estimated value is based on either the present value of the expected future cash flows discounted at the loan's effective interest rate, the loan's observable market price or fair value of the collateral. Amounts on loans deemed to be uncollectible are charged off and removed from the valuation allowance. When a valuation allowance is established, subsequent recoveries are removed from the valuation allowance and subsequent losses are added to the valuation allowance. The change in the valuation allowance is included in net realized capital gains (losses) on our consolidated statements of operations.
The valuation allowance is maintained at a level believed adequate by management to absorb estimated probable credit losses. Management's periodic evaluation and assessment of the valuation allowance adequacy is based on known and inherent risks in the portfolio, adverse situations that may affect a borrower's ability to repay, the estimated value of the underlying collateral, composition of the loan portfolio, portfolio delinquency information, underwriting standards, peer group information, current economic conditions, loss experience and other relevant factors. The evaluation of our impaired loan component is subjective, as it requires the estimation of timing and amount of future cash flows expected to be received on impaired loans.
We review our commercial mortgage loan portfolio and analyze the need for a valuation allowance for any loan that is delinquent for 60 days or more, in process of foreclosure, restructured, on the internal "watch list" or that currently has a valuation allowance. In addition to establishing allowance levels for specifically identified impaired commercial mortgage loans, management determines an allowance for all other loans in the portfolio for which historical experience and current economic conditions indicate certain losses exist. These loans are segregated by major product type and/or risk level with an estimated loss ratio applied against each product type and/or risk level. The loss ratio is generally based upon historic loss experience for each loan type as adjusted for certain environmental factors management believes to be relevant.
For our residential mortgage loan portfolio, we separate the loans into several homogeneous pools, each of which consist of loans of a similar nature including but not limited to loans similar in collateral, term and structure and loan purpose or type. We evaluate loan pools based on aggregated risk ratings, estimated specific loss potential in the different classes of credits, and historical loss experience by pool type. We adjust these quantitative factors for qualitative factors of present conditions. Qualitative factors include items such as economic and business conditions, changes in the portfolio, value of underlying collateral, and concentrations. Residential mortgage loan pools exclude loans that have been restructured or impaired, as those loans are evaluated individually.
A rollforward of our valuation allowance and ending balances of the allowance and loan balance by basis of impairment method was as follows:
We periodically purchase mortgage loans as well as sell mortgage loans we have originated. We purchased $39.8 million of residential mortgage loans during the year ended December 31, 2010. We sold $34.1 million of commercial mortgage loans and $17.4 million of residential mortgage loans as of December 31, 2010.
Impaired Mortgage Loans
Impaired mortgage loans include loans with a related specific valuation allowance, loans whose carrying amount has been reduced to the expected collectible amount because the impairment has been considered other than temporary or troubled debt restructurings. Based on an assessment as to the collectability of the principal, a determination is made to apply any payments received either against the principal or according to the contractual terms of the loan. Our recorded investment in and unpaid principal balance of impaired loans along with the related loan specific allowance for losses, if any, for each reporting period and the average recorded investment and interest income recognized during the time the loans were impaired were as follows:
Depreciation expense on invested real estate was $41.1 million, $41.7 million and $32.1 million in 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. Accumulated depreciation was $331.2 million and $290.1 million as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively.
Other investments include minority interests in unconsolidated entities, domestic and international joint ventures and partnerships and properties owned jointly with venture partners and operated by the partners. Such investments are generally accounted for using the equity method. In applying the equity method, we record our share of income or loss reported by the equity investees in net investment income. Summarized financial information for these unconsolidated entities was as follows:
In addition, other investments include $443.1 million and $375.2 million of direct financing leases as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Our Chilean operations enter into private placement contracts for commercial, industrial and office space properties whereby our Chilean operations purchase the real estate and/or building from the seller-lessee but then lease the property back to the seller-lessee. Ownership of the property is transferred to the lessee by the end of the lease term. The direct financing lease receivables are carried at amortized cost. We actively monitor and manage our direct financing leases. All leases within the portfolio are analyzed regularly and internally rated, based on financial condition, payment history and loan-to-value.
Derivative assets are carried at fair value and reported as a component of other investments. Certain seed money investments are also carried at fair value and reported as a component of other investments, with changes in fair value included in net realized capital gains (losses) on our consolidated statements of operations.
Securities Posted as Collateral
We posted $1,052.5 million in fixed maturities, available-for-sale securities at December 31, 2010, to satisfy collateral requirements primarily associated with our derivative credit support annex (collateral) agreements and a reinsurance arrangement. In addition, we posted $1,695.1 million in commercial mortgage loans as of December 31, 2010, to satisfy collateral requirements associated with our obligation under funding agreements with the Federal Home Loan Bank of Des Moines. Since we did not relinquish ownership rights on these securities, they are reported as fixed maturities, available-for-sale and commercial mortgage loans, respectively, on our consolidated statements of financial position.
5. Derivative Financial Instruments
Derivatives are generally used to hedge or reduce exposure to market risks associated with assets held or expected to be purchased or sold and liabilities incurred or expected to be incurred. Derivatives are used to change the characteristics of our asset/liability mix consistent with our risk management activities. Derivatives are also used in asset replication strategies.
Types of Derivative Instruments
Interest Rate Contracts
Interest rate risk is the risk that we will incur economic losses due to adverse changes in interest rates. Sources of interest rate risk include the difference between the maturity and interest rate changes of assets with the liabilities they support, timing differences between the pricing of liabilities and the purchase or procurement of assets and changing cash flow profiles from original projections due to prepayment options embedded within asset and liability contracts. We use various derivatives to manage our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates.
Interest rate swaps are contracts in which we agree with other parties to exchange, at specified intervals, the difference between fixed rate and floating rate interest amounts based upon designated market rates or rate indices and an agreed upon notional principal amount. Generally, no cash is exchanged at the outset of the contract and no principal payments are made by either party. Cash is paid or received based on the terms of the swap. These transactions are entered into pursuant to master agreements that provide for a single net payment to be made by one counterparty at each due date. We use interest rate swaps primarily to more closely match the interest rate characteristics of assets and liabilities and to mitigate the risks arising from timing mismatches between assets and liabilities (including duration mismatches). We also use interest rate swaps to hedge against changes in the value of assets we anticipate acquiring and other anticipated transactions and commitments. Interest rate swaps are used to hedge against changes in the value of the guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefit ("GMWB") liability. The GMWB rider on our variable annuity products provides for guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefits regardless of the actual performance of various equity and/or fixed income funds available with the product.
Interest rate caps and interest rate floors, which can be combined to form interest rate collars, are contracts that entitle the purchaser to pay or receive the amounts, if any, by which a specified market rate exceeds a cap strike interest rate, or falls below a floor strike interest rate, respectively, at specified dates. We have entered into interest rate collars whereby we receive amounts if a specified market rate falls below a floor strike interest rate, and we pay if a specified market rate exceeds a cap strike interest rate. We use interest rate collars to manage interest rate risk related to guaranteed minimum interest rate liabilities in our individual annuities contracts.
A swaption is an option to enter into an interest rate swap at a future date. We purchase swaptions to offset existing exposures. We have also written these options and received a premium in order to transform our callable liabilities into fixed term liabilities. Swaptions provide us the benefit of the agreed-upon strike rate if the market rates for liabilities are higher, with the flexibility to enter into the current market rate swap if the market rates for liabilities are lower. Swaptions not only hedge against the downside risk, but also allow us to take advantage of any upside benefits.
In exchange-traded futures transactions, we agree to purchase or sell a specified number of contracts, the values of which are determined by the values of designated classes of securities, and to post variation margin on a daily basis in an amount equal to the difference in the daily market values of those contracts. We enter into exchange-traded futures with regulated futures commissions merchants who are members of a trading exchange. We have used exchange-traded futures to reduce market risks from changes in interest rates and to alter mismatches between the assets in a portfolio and the liabilities supported by those assets.
Foreign Exchange Contracts
Foreign currency risk is the risk that we will incur economic losses due to adverse fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. This risk arises from foreign currency-denominated funding agreements we issue, foreign currency-denominated fixed maturities we invest in and our investment in and net income of our international operations. We may use currency swaps and currency forwards to hedge foreign currency risk.
Currency swaps are contracts in which we agree with other parties to exchange, at specified intervals, a series of principal and interest payments in one currency for that of another currency. Generally, the principal amount of each currency is exchanged at the beginning and termination of the currency swap by each party. The interest payments are primarily fixed-to-fixed rate; however, they may also be fixed-to-floating rate or floating-to-fixed rate. These transactions are entered into pursuant to master agreements that provide for a single net payment to be made by one counterparty for payments made in the same currency at each due date. We use currency swaps to reduce market risks from changes in currency exchange rates with respect to investments or liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that we either hold or intend to acquire or sell.
Currency forwards are contracts in which we agree with other parties to deliver a specified amount of an identified currency at a specified future date. Typically, the price is agreed upon at the time of the contract and payment for such a contract is made at the specified future date. We use currency forwards to reduce market risks from changes in currency exchange rates with respect to investments or liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that we either hold or intend to acquire or sell. We have also used currency forwards to hedge the currency risk associated with net investments in foreign operations. We did not use any currency forwards during 2010 or 2009 to hedge our net investment in foreign operations.
Equity risk is the risk that we will incur economic losses due to adverse fluctuations in common stock. We use various derivatives to manage our exposure to equity risk, which arises from products in which the interest we credit is tied to an external equity index as well as products subject to minimum contractual guarantees.
We may sell an investment-type insurance contract with attributes tied to market indices (an embedded derivative as noted below), in which case we write an equity call option to convert the overall contract into a fixed-rate liability, essentially eliminating the equity component altogether. We purchase equity call spreads to hedge the equity participation rates promised to contractholders in conjunction with our fixed deferred annuity products that credit interest based on changes in an external equity index. We use exchange-traded futures and equity put options to hedge against changes in the value of the GMWB liability related to the GMWB rider on our variable annuity product, as previously explained. The premium associated with certain options is paid quarterly over the life of the option contract.
Credit risk relates to the uncertainty associated with the continued ability of a given obligor to make timely payments of principal and interest. We use credit default swaps to enhance the return on our investment portfolio by providing comparable exposure to fixed income securities that might not be available in the primary market. They are also used to hedge credit exposures in our investment portfolio. Credit derivatives are used to sell or buy credit protection on an identified name or names on an unfunded or synthetic basis in return for receiving or paying a quarterly premium. The premium generally corresponds to a referenced name's credit spread at the time the agreement is executed. In cases where we sell protection, at the same time we enter into these synthetic transactions, we buy a quality cash bond to match against the credit default swap. When selling protection, if there is an event of default by the referenced name, as defined by the agreement, we are obligated to pay the counterparty the referenced amount of the contract and receive in return the referenced security in a principal amount equal to the notional value of the credit default swap.
Commodity Swaps. Commodity swaps are used to sell or buy protection on commodity prices in return for receiving or paying a quarterly premium. We have purchased secured limited recourse notes from VIEs that were consolidated in our financial results prior to 2010, but for which we are no longer the primary beneficiary. These VIEs used a commodity swap to enhance the return on an investment portfolio by selling protection on a static portfolio of commodity trigger swaps, each referencing a base or precious metal. The portfolio of commodity trigger swaps was a portfolio of deep out-of-the-money European puts on various base or precious metals. The VIEs provided mezzanine protection that the average spot rate would not fall below a certain trigger price on each commodity trigger swap in the portfolio and received guaranteed quarterly premiums in return until maturity. At the same time the VIEs entered into this synthetic transaction, they bought a quality cash bond to match against the commodity swaps.
Embedded Derivatives. We purchase or issue certain financial instruments or products that contain a derivative instrument that is embedded in the financial instrument or product. When it is determined that the embedded derivative possesses economic characteristics that are not clearly or closely related to the economic characteristics of the host contract and a separate instrument with the same terms would qualify as a derivative instrument, the embedded derivative is bifurcated from the host instrument for measurement purposes. The embedded derivative, which is reported with the host instrument in the consolidated statements of financial position, is carried at fair value.
We sell investment-type insurance contracts in which the return is tied to an external equity index, a leveraged inflation index or leveraged reference swap. We economically hedge the risk associated with these investment-type insurance contracts.
We offer group benefit plan contracts that have guaranteed separate accounts as an investment option. We also offer a guaranteed fund as an investment option in our defined contribution plans in Hong Kong.
We have structured investment relationships with trusts we have determined to be VIEs, which are consolidated in our financial statements. The notes issued by these trusts include obligations to deliver an underlying security to residual interest holders and the obligations contain an embedded derivative of the forecasted transaction to deliver the underlying security.
We have fixed deferred annuities that credit interest based on changes in an external equity index. We also have certain variable annuity products with a GMWB rider, which provides that the contractholder will receive at least their principal deposit back through withdrawals of up to a specified annual amount, even if the account value is reduced to zero. Declines in the equity market may increase our exposure to benefits under contracts with the GMWB. We economically hedge the exposure in these annuity contracts, as previously explained.
Our risk of loss is typically limited to the fair value of our derivative instruments and not to the notional or contractual amounts of these derivatives. Risk arises from changes in the fair value of the underlying instruments. We are also exposed to credit losses in the event of nonperformance of the counterparties. Our current credit exposure is limited to the value of derivatives that have become favorable to us. This credit risk is minimized by purchasing such agreements from financial institutions with high credit ratings and by establishing and monitoring exposure limits. We also utilize various credit enhancements, including collateral and credit triggers to reduce the credit exposure to our derivative instruments.
Our derivative transactions are generally documented under International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. ("ISDA") Master Agreements. Management believes that such agreements provide for legally enforceable set-off and close-out netting of exposures to specific counterparties. Under such agreements, in connection with an early termination of a transaction, we are permitted to set off our receivable from a counterparty against our payables to the same counterparty arising out of all included transactions. For reporting purposes, we do not offset fair value amounts recognized for the right to reclaim cash collateral or the obligation to return cash collateral against fair value amounts recognized for derivative instruments executed with the same counterparties under master netting agreements.
We posted $376.8 million and $273.7 million in cash and securities under collateral arrangements as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively, to satisfy collateral requirements associated with our derivative credit support agreements.
Certain of our derivative instruments contain provisions that require us to maintain an investment grade rating from each of the major credit rating agencies on our debt. If the rating on our debt were to fall below investment grade, it would be in violation of these provisions and the counterparties to the derivative instruments could request immediate payment or demand immediate and ongoing full overnight collateralization on derivative instruments in net liability positions. The aggregate fair value, inclusive of accrued interest, of all derivative instruments with credit-risk-related contingent features that were in a liability position without regard to netting under derivative credit support annex agreements as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, was $1,262.0 million and $1,139.7 million, respectively. With respect to these derivatives, we posted collateral of $376.8 million and $273.7 million as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively, in the normal course of business, which reflects netting under derivative credit support annex agreements. If the credit-risk-related contingent features underlying these agreements were triggered on December 31, 2010, we would be required to post an additional $56.6 million of collateral to our counterparties.
As of December 31, 2010 and 2009, we had received $249.2 million and $353.4 million, respectively, of cash collateral associated with our derivative credit support annex agreements. The cash collateral is included in other assets on the consolidated statements of financial position, with a corresponding liability reflecting our obligation to return the collateral recorded in other liabilities.
Notional amounts are used to express the extent of our involvement in derivative transactions and represent a standard measurement of the volume of our derivative activity. Notional amounts represent those amounts used to calculate contractual flows to be exchanged and are not paid or received, except for contracts such as currency swaps. Credit exposure represents the gross amount owed to us under derivative contracts as of the valuation date. The notional amounts and credit exposure of our derivative financial instruments by type were as follows: