The Company's significant accounting policies are as follows:
Basis of presentation
These Consolidated Financial Statements reflect the historical balance sheets; statements of operations; statements of comprehensive income; statements of changes in shareholders' equity; and statements of cash flows of the Company. On October 15, 2014, the Company completed the Offering by its Parent of 22,000,000 ordinary shares of the Company pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. Additionally, the underwriters in the Offering exercised a portion of their overallotment option and purchased an additional 2,231,375 shares of the Company from the Parent. On June 22, 2015, the Company completed a secondary public offering by its Parent of 15,295,000 ordinary shares including the full overallotment option. At December 31, 2015, the Company's Parent owned 65.8% of the Company's outstanding ordinary shares.
Within these Consolidated Financial Statements, entities that are part of the Parent's consolidated results, but are not part of OMAM, as defined above, are referred to as "related parties." These historical Consolidated Financial Statements prepared prior to the Offering use the Parent's historical basis in determining the assets and liabilities and the results of the Company. The financial information included herein may not reflect the consolidated financial position, operating results, changes in the Parent's equity investment and cash flows of the Company in the future, and does not reflect what they would have been had the Company been a separate, stand-alone entity for the entirety of the periods presented.
The Company historically utilized the services of the Parent for certain functions. These services included providing working capital, as well as certain finance, internal audit, insurance, human resources, investor relations, risk, governance and other corporate functions and projects. The cost of these services was allocated to the Company and included in the Consolidated Financial Statements. The allocations were determined on the basis which the Parent and the Company considered to be reasonable reflections of the utilization of services provided by the Parent. Subsequent to the Offering, the Company assumed responsibility for the costs of these functions.
The Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP"). All dollar amounts, except per share data in the text and tables herein, are stated in millions unless otherwise indicated. Transactions between the Company and the Parent are included in the Consolidated Financial Statements, however material intercompany balances and transactions among the Company, its consolidated Affiliates and consolidated Funds are eliminated in consolidation.
The Company evaluates each of its Affiliate and other operating entities to determine the appropriate method of accounting. Generally, majority-owned entities or otherwise controlled investments in which the Company holds a controlling financial interest as the principal shareholder, managing member, or general partner are consolidated.
In evaluating whether or not a legal entity must be consolidated, the Company determines if such entity is a variable interest entity (“VIE”) or a voting interest entity (“VOE”). A VOE is considered an entity in which (i) the total equity investment at risk is sufficient to enable the entity to finance its activities independently and (ii) the equity holders at risk have the obligation to absorb losses, the right to receive residual returns, and the right to direct the activities of the entity that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance. A VIE is an entity that lacks one or more of the characteristics of a VOE. Assessing whether an entity is a VIE or VOE involves judgment and analysis. Factors considered in this assessment include the entity’s legal organization, the entity’s capital structure and equity ownership and any related party or de facto agent implications of the Company’s involvement with the entity. Investments that are determined to be VIEs are consolidated if the Company or a consolidated Affiliate is the primary beneficiary of the investment. VOEs are typically consolidated if the Company holds the majority voting interest or otherwise controls the entity.
In the normal course of business, the Company’s Affiliates sponsor and manage certain investment vehicles (the “Funds”). The Company assesses consolidation requirements with respect to its Funds pursuant to Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 810, Consolidation, as amended by Accounting Standards Update 2015-02, Consolidation: Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis ("ASU 2015-02") relating to the consolidation of VIEs.
Prior to the adoption of ASU 2015-02, substantially all of the Funds managed by the Company qualified for the deferral granted under ASU 2010-10, "Amendments for Certain Investment Funds". As such, the Company evaluated these Funds for consolidation pursuant to former guidance in Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Interpretation No. 46(R), Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities. These Funds have typically been owned entirely by third-party investors, however certain Funds are capitalized with seed capital investments from the Company or its related parties and may be owned partially by Affiliate key employees and/or individuals that own minority interests in an Affiliate.
In adopting ASU 2015-02, the Company re-evaluated all of its Affiliates' Funds for consolidation. All Funds consolidated prior to January 1, 2015 pursuant to consolidation guidance superseded by ASU 2015-02 were de-consolidated as of January 1, 2015. The Company elected to implement ASU 2015-02 using the modified retrospective method, which resulted in an effective date of adoption of January 1, 2015 and did not require the restatement of prior period results.
In evaluating whether the Company is the primary beneficiary, the Company evaluates its economic interests in the entity held either directly by the Company or indirectly through related parties. For VIEs that are investment companies subject to ASU 2010-10, the primary beneficiary of the VIE is generally the variable interest holder that absorbs a majority of the expected losses of the VIE, receives a majority of the expected residual returns of the VIE, or both. The Company generally is not the primary beneficiary of Fund VIEs created to manage assets for clients unless the Company’s ownership interest, including interests of related parties, is substantial.
The primary beneficiary of a VIE is defined as the variable interest holder that has a controlling financial interest. A controlling financial interest is defined as (i) the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impacts its economic performance and (ii) the obligation to absorb losses of the entity or the right to receive benefits from the entity that could potentially be significant to the VIE. If no single party satisfies both criteria, but the Company and its related parties satisfy the criteria on a combined basis, then the primary beneficiary is the entity out of the related party group that is most closely associated to the VIE. The consolidation analysis can generally be performed qualitatively, however, if it is not readily apparent that the Company is not the primary beneficiary, a quantitative analysis may also be performed.
The Company consolidates VOEs when it has control over significant operating, financial and investing decisions of the entity or holds the majority voting interest. For VOEs organized as limited partnerships or as an entity with governance structures similar to a limited partnership (e.g., limited liability company with a managing member), the Company consolidates an entity when it holds the controlling general partnership interest and the limited partners do not hold substantive participating rights or rights to remove and replace the general partner or rights that could provide the limited partners with the ability to impact the ongoing governance and operating activities of the entity.
Other than Funds holding investments in timber assets (the “Timber Funds”), the Company’s consolidated Funds are investment companies (the “Investment Funds”) and the Company has therefore retained their specialized investment company accounting in consolidation, pursuant to ASC 946, “Financial Services—Investment Companies.”
Upon the occurrence of certain events (such as contributions and redemptions, either by the Company, its Affiliates, or third parties, or amendments to the governing documents of the Company’s investees or sponsored Funds) management reviews and reconsiders its previous conclusion regarding the status of an entity as a VIE or a VOE. Additionally, management continually reconsiders whether the Company is deemed to be a VIE’s primary beneficiary who consolidates such entity. As of December 31, 2015, there were no Funds which were consolidated pursuant to ASU 2015-02.
Timber assets and timber lease rights of consolidated Timber Funds are stated at historical cost less depletion for timber previously harvested and less accumulated amortization and depreciation for lease rights and roads. Timber investment values are adjusted for capital additions made to the property subsequent to the valuation date. All initial silviculture costs, including site preparation and planting costs are capitalized as stand establishment costs. Stand establishment costs are transferred to a merchantable timber classification as trees reach a certain size. Generally, costs incurred subsequent to two years after planting, such as fertilization, vegetation, insect control and pre-commercial thinning are considered to be maintenance and are expensed as incurred.
The Company estimates its timber inventory using statistical information and data obtained from physical measurements, site maps, photo-types and other information gathering techniques. These estimates are updated annually and may result in adjustments of timber volumes, including timber growth rates and depletion rates.
Depletion consists of costs attributed to harvesting timber and is recorded as an expense as timber is harvested. The depletion rate applied to the volume of timber sold is adjusted annually and is based on the relationship of incurred costs in the merchantable timber classification to estimated current merchantable volume.
Prior to the adoption of ASU 2015-02, the Company's Timber Funds did not qualify for the deferral under ASU 2010-10. Following the adoption of ASU 2015-02, Timber Funds and Investment Funds are evaluated pursuant to the same revised consolidation guidance. All of the Company's Timber Funds that were previously consolidated were de-consolidated on January 1, 2015 upon the adoption of ASU 2015-02 utilizing the modified retrospective method.
Derivatives and Hedging
The Company may utilize derivative financial instruments to hedge the risk of movement of interest rates and foreign currency on financial assets and liabilities. These derivative financial instruments may or may not qualify as hedges for accounting purposes. The Company records all derivative financial instruments as either assets or liabilities on its Consolidated Balance Sheets and measures these instruments at fair value. For a derivative financial instrument that qualifies as a hedge for accounting purposes and is designated as a hedging instrument, the effective portion of the derivative’s gain or loss is initially reported as a component of other comprehensive income (loss) and subsequently reclassified into earnings over the life of the hedge. The ineffective portion of the gain or loss is reported in earnings immediately.
Use of estimates
The preparation of these Consolidated Financial Statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the period. Actual results could differ significantly from those estimates.
The Company operates in one operating segment that provides investment management services and products primarily to institutional clients. Although the Company does make certain disclosures regarding assets under management by product and affiliate, the Company's determination that it operates one business segment is based on the fact that the Chief Operating Decision Maker ("CODM") reviews the Company's financial performance on an aggregate level.
Cash and cash equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments, including money market mutual funds, with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are stated at cost, which approximates market value due to the short-term maturity of these investments. Cash held by consolidated Funds is not available to fund general liquidity needs of the Company.
Restricted cash in Timber Funds consists primarily of deposits in time deposit accounts, earning interest at LIBOR + a margin, which are restricted to payment of certain notes payable of consolidated Funds of the Company (also see Note 13). Restricted cash of the consolidated Timber Funds may only be drawn upon to meet debt service payments (corrective coverage payments) or to pay certain Fund operating expenses through December 31, 2014. During the period thereafter, the restricted reserve balance may only be drawn upon for principal payments.
Fair value measurements
In accordance with the provisions of FASB ASC 820, "Fair Value Measurement" ("ASC 820"), fair value is the price that the Company expects to be paid upon the sale of an asset or expects to pay upon the transfer of a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. Pursuant to ASC 820, there is a three-level hierarchy for fair value measurements based upon the transparency of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability. Inputs may be observable or unobservable and refer broadly to the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. Observable inputs reflect the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on market data obtained from independent sources. Unobservable inputs reflect the Company's own conclusions about the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on the best information available in the circumstances. Each investment is assigned a level based upon the observability of the inputs which are significant to the overall valuation. Assets and liabilities measured and reported at fair value are classified and disclosed in one of the following categories:
•Level I—Quoted prices are available in active markets for identical investments as of the reporting date. The type of investments included in Level I include listed equities and listed derivatives. As required by U.S. GAAP, the Company does not adjust the quoted price for these investments.
•Level II—Pricing inputs are other than quoted prices in active markets, which are either directly or indirectly observable as of the reporting date, and fair value is determined through the use of models or other valuation methodologies utilizing observable market inputs other than quoted prices. Investments which are generally included in this category include corporate bonds and loans, less liquid and restricted equity securities and certain over-the-counter derivatives.
•Level III—Pricing inputs are unobservable for the asset or liability and include assets and liabilities where there is little, if any, market activity for the investment. The inputs into the determination of fair value require significant management judgment or estimation. Investments that are included in this category generally include general and limited partner interests in corporate private equity, real estate funds, and funds of hedge funds.
In certain cases, the inputs used to measure fair value may fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In such cases, an investment's level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company's assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the investment. The Company has adopted the provisions of Accounting Standards Update 2015-07, "Fair Value Measurement" ("ASU 2015-07") where, in cases in which the fair value of an investment is established using the net asset value (or its equivalent) as a practical expedient, the investment will no longer be categorized within the fair value hierarchy.
Investments and Investment Transactions
Valuation of investments held at fair value
Valuation of Fund investments is evaluated pursuant to the fair value methodology discussed above. The Company's discretionary investments are categorized as trading and held at estimated fair value. Realized and unrealized gains and losses arising from changes in fair value of discretionary investments are reported within investment income in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. See Note 4 for a summary of the fair value inputs utilized to determine the fair value of other discretionary investments held at fair value.
The Investment Funds generally record securities transactions on a trade-date basis. Realized gains and losses on securities transactions are generally determined on the average-cost method (net of foreign capital gain taxes) and for certain transactions determined based on the specific identification method.
Income and expense recognition
The Investment Funds record interest income on an accrual basis and include amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts. Dividend income and expense on dividends sold short are recorded on the ex-dividend date, net of applicable withholding taxes. Expenses are recorded on an accrual basis.
Foreign currency translation
The books and records of the Company and its Affiliates are maintained in U.S. dollars. Except for one Timber Fund in Australia consolidated prior to 2015, the books and records of consolidated Funds are maintained in U.S. dollars. Investment securities and other assets and liabilities denominated in a foreign currency are translated into U.S. dollars on the date of valuation. Income and expense transactions denominated in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars using the average exchange rate over the period presented. The portion of realized or unrealized gains and losses resulting from changes in foreign exchange rates and from fluctuations arising from changes in the market prices of the underlying securities are included in the net realized and unrealized gain and loss on investments on the consolidated statement of operations. Net realized and unrealized gains and losses on foreign currency transactions represent net foreign exchange gains or losses from forward foreign currency exchange contracts, disposition of foreign currencies, currency gains or losses between the trade and settlement date on security transactions, and the difference between the amount of the investment income and foreign withholding taxes recorded on the Funds' books and the U.S. dollar equivalent amounts actually received or paid.
Certain Investment Funds may sell a security they do not own in anticipation of a decline in the fair value of that security. When a Fund sells a security short, it must borrow the security sold short and deliver it to the broker-dealer through which it made the short sale. The short sales are secured by the long portfolio and available cash. The Fund records a gain, limited to the price at which the Fund sold the security short, or a loss, unlimited in size, upon the termination of a short sale. The amount of the gain or loss will be equal to the proceeds received in entering into the short sale less the cost of buying back the short security to close the short position. While the transaction is open, the Fund will incur an expense for any accrued dividends or interest which is paid to the lender of the securities. These short sales may involve a level of risk in excess of the liability recognized in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet. The extent of such risk cannot be quantified.
Certain Funds use derivative instruments. However, there is minimal risk to the Company in relation to the derivative assets and liabilities of the Funds in excess of its investment in the respective Funds holding the investment. The Funds' derivative instruments include foreign currency exchange contracts, credit default swaps, interest rate swaps, financial futures contracts and warrants. The fair values of derivative instruments are recorded as other assets of consolidated Funds or other liabilities of consolidated Funds on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheets. The Company has used foreign exchange forwards to hedge the risk of movement in exchange rates on financial assets on a limited basis.
The Company's Funds have not designated any financial instruments for hedge accounting, as defined in the accounting literature, during the periods presented. The gains or losses on Fund's derivative instruments not designated for hedge accounting are included as net consolidated Funds gains or losses in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Equity method investments
The Company uses the equity method of accounting for investments that provide the Company with the ability to exercise significant influence over an entity, but that do not meet the requirements for consolidation. Equity method investments include two Affiliates, Heitman LLC and Investment Counselors of Maryland, LLC as well as all unconsolidated Funds over which the Company exercises significant influence. The Company's share of earnings (losses) from equity method investments is included in investment income in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. The carrying amounts of equity method investments are reflected in Investments in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The Company evaluates its equity method investments for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts of such investments may not be recoverable. The difference between the carrying value and its estimated fair value is recognized as impairment when the loss is deemed other than temporary. Other investments, in which OMAM or an Affiliate do not exercise significant influence are accounted for under the cost method. Under the cost method, income is recognized as dividends are declared.
The Company's consolidated revenue primarily represents management fees billed monthly, quarterly and annually by Affiliates for managing the assets of clients. Asset-based management fees are recognized monthly as services are rendered and are primarily based upon a percentage of the market value of client assets managed. Affiliates that manage tangible property may also earn transaction fees at the time the underlying property is bought and sold. Any fees collected in advance are deferred and recognized as income over the period earned. Dividend income received by Investment Funds is recorded on the ex-dividend date. Performance fees are generally assessed as a percentage of the investment performance realized on a client's account. Performance fees, including those that are subject to clawback are recognized when they (i) become billable to customers (based on contractual terms of agreements), (ii) are not subject to contingent repayment and (iii) when collection is reasonably assured. Other income and revenues include interest income on cash and cash equivalents of Investment Funds and the Company's share of earnings from joint venture partners.
Timber Funds' revenue is recognized from log and fiber sales upon delivery to the customer. The Company is typically responsible for all logging and hauling costs. However, under pay-as-cut timber contracts, title and risk of loss from stumpage sales transfer to the buyer as the trees are cut. Revenue is recognized as timber is harvested. The buyer is typically responsible for all logging and hauling costs.
Investment advisory fees receivable
The Company earns management and performance fees which are billed monthly, quarterly and annually in arrears, according to the terms of the relevant investment management agreement. Management and performance fees that have been earned, but have not yet been collected are presented as Investment advisory fees receivable on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Due to the short-term nature and liquidity of these receivables, the carrying amounts approximate their fair values. The Company typically does not record an allowance for doubtful accounts or bad debt expense, or any amounts recorded have been immaterial.
Allocated Costs from the Parent
The Company's Parent provides the Company with various services, including governance through the board of directors and executive committees, investor relations, procurement of insurance coverage, human resources, financial reporting, internal audit, treasury, systems, risk and tax services. Some of these services are directly attributable to the Company and some are of a more general nature. The costs associated with the services which are (i) directly attributable to the Company, (ii) have been charged directly to the Company by the Company's Parent, and (iii) have been paid to the Company's Parent by the Company have been reflected in the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements. During the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, the amount of expenses charged directly to the Company from the Company's Parent were $1.8 million, $2.1 million and $2.0 million, respectively.
With respect to the above services and benefits which are not directly attributable to the Company, costs were allocated to the Company and included in the Consolidated Financial Statements, based generally on the Company's proportion of the total Parent's consolidated, normalized revenues. Subsequent to the Offering (see Note 1), these general costs are no longer allocated and if required are borne directly by the Company. During the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, costs allocated to the Company from Parent were $0.0 million, $3.4 million and $3.3 million, respectively.
These cost allocations were determined using a method that the Parent and the Company considered reasonably reflected the costs of such services attributable to the Company provided by the Parent. The Company believes the assumptions and allocations underlying the Consolidated Financial Statements are reasonable and the allocated amounts are representative of the amounts that would have been recorded in the Consolidated Financial Statements had the Company operated independent of the Parent for the historical periods presented prior to the Offering. A more detailed discussion of the relationship with the Parent, including a description of the costs that have been allocated to the Company, as well as the allocation methods, is included in Note 10, "Related Party Transactions."
Property and equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at historical cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over its estimated useful lives. The estimated useful lives of office equipment and furniture and fixtures range from three to five years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the remaining term of the lease. Computer software developed or obtained for internal use is amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the software, which is generally three years or less. The costs of improvements that extend the life of a fixed asset are capitalized, while the costs of repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred.
Acquired Affiliates have identifiable intangible assets arising from contractual or other legal rights with their clients. In determining the value of acquired intangibles, the Company analyzes the net present value of each acquired Affiliate's existing client relationships based on a number of factors. The Company analyzes the Affiliate's historical and potential future operating performance, the Affiliate's historical and potential future rates of attrition among existing clients, the stability and longevity of existing client relationships, the Affiliate's recent and long-term investment performance, the characteristics of the firm's products and investment styles, the stability and depth of the Affiliate's management team and the Affiliate's history and perceived franchise or brand value. The Company's acquired intangible assets are predominately definite-life intangible assets and are generally amortized on a straight line basis over their estimated useful lives, ranging from five to sixteen years, reflecting the expected duration of such relationships. The Company does not hold any indefinite-life intangible assets other than goodwill.
The Company tests for the possible impairment of acquired intangibles whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset is not recoverable. If such indicators exist, the Company compares the undiscounted cash flows related to the asset to the carrying value of the asset. If the carrying value is greater than the undiscounted cash flow amount, an impairment charge is recorded in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for amounts necessary to reduce the carrying value of the asset to fair value. Intangible assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of carrying value or fair value less cost to sell.
The Company records goodwill when the consideration paid in a business acquisition exceeds the fair value of the net total of tangible assets acquired, identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Goodwill is not amortized, but rather is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if events or circumstances occur that indicate impairment may exist. Factors that could trigger an impairment review include significant underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results, significant changes in the Company's use of the acquired assets in a business combination or the strategy for the Company's overall business, and significant negative industry or economic trends.
The Company performs its assessment for impairment of goodwill during the fourth quarter annually as of September 30, or as necessary, and the Company has determined that it has five reporting units, consisting of the five consolidated Affiliates. The Company first considers various qualitative factors to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair value of each of the reporting units is greater than its respective carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of any reporting unit declines below its respective carrying amount, therefore indicating that impairment may exist, the impact would be determined at that point. For purposes of assessing potential impairment, the fair value of the reporting unit is estimated and compared to the carrying value of the reporting unit. The fair value of a reporting unit is based on discounted estimated future cash flows. The assumptions used to estimate fair value include management's estimates of future growth rates, operating cash flows, discount rates and terminal value. These assumptions and estimates can change in future periods based on market movement and factors impacting the expected business performance. Changes in assumptions or estimates could materially affect the determination of the fair value of a reporting unit. If it is determined that the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the Company determines the implied fair value of the goodwill in the same manner used to determine the amount of goodwill in a business combination. If the carrying value of goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of the goodwill, an impairment charge is recognized in the amount equal to that excess. Based on the Company's most recent annual goodwill impairment test, the fair value of all its reporting units were in excess of their carrying value.
The Company and its Affiliates currently lease office space and equipment under various leasing arrangements, classified as operating leases. Some lease agreements contain renewal options, rent escalation clauses or other inducements provided by the landlord. Rent expense is accrued to recognize lease escalation provisions and inducements provided by the landlord, if any, on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Earnings per share
The Company calculates basic and diluted earnings per share ("EPS") by dividing net income for the year ended December 31, 2015 by its shares outstanding as outlined below. For 2014 and periods prior to the Offering (described in Note 1), the Company is calculating pro forma basic and fully diluted EPS based upon 120 million pro forma shares, the number of shares outstanding following the Reorganization described in Note 1.
Basic EPS attributable to the Company's common shareholders is calculated by dividing "Net income attributable to controlling interests" by the weighted-average number of shares outstanding. Diluted EPS is similar to basic EPS, but adjusts for the effect of potential common shares unless they are antidilutive. For periods with a net loss, potential common shares are considered antidilutive.
The Company considers two ways to measure dilution to earnings per share: (a) calculate the net number of shares that would be issued assuming any related proceeds are used to buy back outstanding shares (the treasury stock method), or (b) assume the gross number of shares are issued and calculate any related effects on net income available for shareholders (the if-converted or two-class method). As appropriate, the Company's policy is to apply the more dilutive methodology upon issuance of such instruments.
The Company operates short term variable compensation arrangements where generally, a percentage of each Affiliate's annual pre-variable compensation earnings, as defined in each arrangement, is allocated to a "pool" of each respective Affiliate's key employees, and subsequently distributed to individuals subject to recommendation and approval of a Remuneration Committee comprised of both the Company's and each respective Affiliate's management. Variable compensation expense is accrued and recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations as services are provided by individual employees. Variable compensation allocated to the "pools" of Affiliate key employees under the terms of the plans, where distribution has not yet been approved by the Remuneration Committee, is not recognized until the required service has been performed and the award is communicated to the individual.
The Company operates longer term profit-interest plans whereby certain Affiliate key employees are granted (or have a right to purchase) awards representing a profits interest in their respective Affiliate, as distinct from an equity interest due to the lack of pari passu voting rights. Under these plans, the Company may award a portion of the aforementioned variable compensation arrangement through issuance of a profits interest in the Affiliate. The awards generally have a three to five year vesting period from the grant date, and the service period begins at the commencement of the financial period to which the variable compensation relates. Under these plans, Affiliate key employees are eligible to share in the profits of their respective Affiliates based on their respective percentage interest held.
In addition, under certain circumstances, Affiliate key employees are eligible to receive a series of repurchase payments upon exiting the plans based on a multiple of the last twelve months profits of their respective Affiliate, as defined. Profits allocated and movements in the potential repurchase value, determined based on a fixed multiple times trailing twelve month profits, as defined, are recognized as compensation expense. Profit interests compensation liabilities are re-measured at each reporting date at the current trailing twelve month earnings multiple, with movements treated as compensation expense in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Share-based compensation plans
The Company recognizes the cost of all share-based payments to directors, senior management and employees, including grants of restricted stock and stock options of its Parent and its Affiliates, as compensation expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations over the respective vesting periods.
Awards made previously under the Parent's restricted stock and stock options plans are accounted for as equity settled, and the grant date fair value is recognized as compensation expense over the requisite service period, with a corresponding contribution to capital recorded. Options granted are measured at fair value using a standard option pricing valuation model. The valuation is consistent with generally accepted valuation methodologies for pricing financial instruments and incorporates all factors and assumptions that knowledgeable, willing market participants would consider in setting the price of the options.
In connection with the Offering, certain unvested restricted shares of the Parent were exchanged for unvested restricted shares of the Company. Awards made under the Company's equity plans are accounted for as equity settled, and the grant date fair value is recognized as compensation expense over the requisite service period, with a corresponding contribution to capital recorded. Valuation of restricted stock awards ("RSAs") and restricted stock units ("RSUs") is determined based on the Company's closing share price as quoted on the New York Stock Exchange on the measurement date. For performance-based RSUs, a Monte-Carlo simulation model is used to determine the fair value. Key inputs for the model include: expected dividend yield, risk-free interest rate and expected volatility.
Awards of equity made to Affiliate key employees are accounted for as cash settled, with the fair value recognized as compensation expense over the requisite service period, with a corresponding liability carried within other long term liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet until the award is settled by the Company. The fair value of the liability is based on the expected cash to be paid, as determined according to trailing twelve months earnings multiples prescribed by each arrangement. The liability is revalued at each reporting period, with any movements recorded within compensation expense.
Deferred financing costs
The Company capitalizes certain legal, accounting and other third-party fees that are directly associated with in-process equity financings as other assets until such financings are consummated. After consummation of the equity financing, these costs are recorded in total equity as a reduction of Shareholders' equity generated as a result of the offering. At the time in which the equity financing is no longer considered probable of being consummated, the deferred financing costs are expensed immediately as a charge to operating expenses in the Consolidated Statement of Operations. Costs associated with an unconsummated transaction amounted to $0.0 million, $0.0 million, and $0.4 million expensed in the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
The Company uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes on a "separate return" basis. Under this method, a subsidiary is assumed to file a separate return with the taxing authority, thereby reporting its taxable income or loss and paying the applicable tax to or receiving the appropriate refund from the parent. The rules followed by the subsidiary in computing its tax or refund should be the same as those followed by a taxpayer filing directly with the taxing authority.
The Company files tax returns directly with the U.K., U.S. and state tax authorities and therefore, the computations under the separate return method follow the Company's filings.
Deferred income taxes are recognized for the effects of temporary differences between the tax basis of an asset or liability and its reported amount in the Consolidated Financial Statements. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company's deferred tax assets have been attributable to federal and state loss carry forwards, interest deductions, and accrued liabilities.
Deferred income tax assets are subject to a valuation allowance if, in management's opinion, it is not more-likely-than-not that these benefits will be realized. In evaluating the Company's ability to recover its deferred tax assets, the Company considers all available positive and negative evidence including its past operating results, the existence of cumulative earnings or losses in the most recent years and its forecast of future taxable income. In estimating future taxable income, the Company develops assumptions including the amount of future pre-tax operating income and the reversal of temporary differences. These assumptions require significant judgment about the forecasts of future taxable income and are consistent with the plans and estimates the Company is using to manage the underlying businesses.
A tax benefit should only be recognized if it is more-likely-than-not that the position will be sustained based on its technical merits. The Company recognizes the financial statement benefit of a tax position only after considering the probability that a tax authority would uphold the position in an examination. For tax positions meeting a "more-likely-than-not" threshold, the amount recognized in the financial statements is the largest amount of benefit greater than 50% likely of being sustained. The more-likely-than-not threshold must continue to be met in each reporting period to support continued recognition of the benefit. Unrecognized tax benefits and related interest and penalties, are adjusted periodically to reflect changing facts and circumstances. The Company's accounting policy is to classify interest and related charges as a component of income tax expense.
Non-controlling interests in Consolidated Funds on the Consolidated Balance Sheets include undistributed income owned by the investors in the respective Funds. The Company's consolidated net income on the Consolidated Statements of Operations includes the income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest holders of these consolidated entities. Ownership interests held by Affiliate key employees are categorized as liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and are revalued each reporting date, with movements treated as compensation expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Redeemable non-controlling interests
The Company includes redeemable non-controlling interests related to certain consolidated Funds as temporary equity on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Non-controlling interests in certain consolidated Funds are subject to monthly or quarterly redemption by the investors. When redeemable amounts become legally payable to investors, they are classified as a liability and included in other liabilities of consolidated Funds on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Other comprehensive income (loss)
Other comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity of a business enterprise during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances, excluding those resulting from investments by and distributions to owners. For the Company's purposes, comprehensive income (loss) represents net income (loss), as presented in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations, adjusted for net foreign currency translation adjustments and adjustments to the valuation of certain derivative securities, net of tax.
A liability for restructuring is recognized only after management has developed a formal plan, approved by the Board of Directors, to which it has committed. The costs included in a restructuring liability are those costs that are either incremental or incurred as a direct result of the plan, or are the result of a continuing contractual obligation with no continuing economic benefit to the Company, or a penalty incurred to cancel the contractual obligation. Refer to Note 22 for details of the Company's restructuring activities.
Recent accounting developments
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-9, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2014-9 modifies existing U.S. GAAP revenue recognition standards to more closely align with international accounting standards. Additionally, the guidance requires improved disclosures around the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue recognized. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-14 which delayed the mandatory adoption date of ASU 2014-9 by one year. ASU 2014-9, as amended, will be effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, however companies may elect to adopt as of an annual reporting period beginning after December 15, 2016. The Company is evaluating the impact of ASU 2014-9, however it does not expect it to have a significant impact on how the Company recognizes its revenues in its Consolidated Financial Statements.