Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, Regulation S-X. In the opinion of management, the information herein reflects all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments except as otherwise noted, considered necessary for a fair statement of results of operations, financial position and cash flows. The condensed consolidated financial statements include the results of Castlight and its wholly owned U.S. subsidiary. The results for the interim periods presented are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for any future period.
The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2013 included herein was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date. The following information should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes included in Castlight’s prospectus dated March 13, 2014 and filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC") pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act of 1933 with the SEC on March 14, 2014. There have been no changes to our significant accounting policies described in the prospectus that have had a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes.
On December 30, 2013, our board of directors and stockholders authorized a one-for-one exchange of all outstanding Class B common stock to Class A common stock. All share, per share and related information presented in these financial statements and accompanying footnotes have been retroactively adjusted to reflect the impact of this exchange.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires us to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. These estimates include, but are not limited to, the determination of the relative selling prices for our services and certain assumptions used in the valuation of our common stock prior to the IPO and equity awards. Actual results could differ from those estimates, and such differences could be material to our consolidated financial position and results of operations.
Our chief operating decision maker, our CEO, reviews the financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating our financial performance. Accordingly, we have determined that we operate in a single reporting segment, cloud applications.
We derive our revenue from sales of cloud-based subscription service contracts, including support, and professional services contracts. We sell subscriptions to our cloud-based subscription service through contracts that are generally three years in length.
Our cloud-based subscription service contracts do not provide customers with the right to take possession of the software supporting the cloud-based service and, as a result, are accounted for as service contracts.
We commence revenue recognition for our cloud-based subscription service and professional services when all of the following criteria are met:
there is persuasive evidence of an arrangement;
the service has been provided to the customer;
collection of the fees is reasonably assured; and
the amount of fees to be paid by the customer is fixed or determinable.
Our subscription and professional service arrangements do not contain refund provisions for fees earned related to services performed.
Subscription Revenue. Subscription revenue recognition commences on the date that our cloud-based service is made available to the customer, which is considered the launch date, provided all of the other criteria described above are met. Revenue is recognized based on the terms in our customer contracts, which can provide for (a) a variable periodic fee based upon the actual or contractual number of users that is recognized to revenue based on the actual or contractual number of users or (b) a fixed fee that is recognized to revenue on a straight-line basis over the contractual term of the arrangement.
Certain of our cloud-based subscription arrangements include performance incentives that are generally based upon employee engagement. Fees for performance incentives are considered contingent revenue, and are recognized over the remaining term of the related subscription arrangement commencing at the time they are earned.
Professional Services Revenue. Professional services revenue is comprised of implementation services related to our cloud-based subscription service, as well as follow-on professional services to assist our customers in further adopting our cloud-based subscription service, and communications services. Nearly all of our professional services contracts are sold on a fixed-fee basis. We do not have standalone value for our implementation services. Accordingly, we recognize implementation services revenue in the same manner as the associated cloud-based subscription service, beginning on the launch date, provided all other criteria described above have been met. For follow-on professional services that are sold separately from the cloud-based subscription service, we recognize revenue as the services are delivered. Communication services revenue is recognized over the contractual term, generally one year, commencing when the revenue recognition criteria have been met.
Multiple Deliverable Arrangements. To date, we have generated substantially all our revenue from multiple deliverable arrangements consisting of multi-year cloud-based subscription services and professional services, including implementation services and communication services. For arrangements with multiple deliverables, we evaluate whether the individual deliverables qualify as separate units of accounting. In order to treat deliverables in a multiple deliverable arrangement as separate units of accounting, the deliverables must have standalone value upon delivery. If the deliverables have standalone value upon delivery, we account for each deliverable separately and revenue is recognized for the respective deliverables as they are delivered. If one or more of the deliverables do not have standalone value upon delivery, the deliverables that do not have standalone value are generally combined with our cloud-based subscription service, and revenue for the combined unit is recognized over the remaining term of the cloud-based subscription service.
Our deliverables have standalone value if we or any other vendor sells a similar service separately. We have concluded that we have standalone value for our cloud-based subscription service as we sell these services separately through renewals and for our communication services as other vendors sell similar services separately. Conversely, we have concluded that our implementation services do not have standalone value, as we and others do not yet sell these services separately. Accordingly, we consider the separate units of accounting in our multiple deliverable arrangements to be the communication services and a combined deliverable comprised of cloud-based subscription services and implementation services.
When multiple deliverables included in an arrangement are separable into different units of accounting, the arrangement consideration is allocated to the identified separate units of accounting based on their relative selling price. Multiple deliverable arrangements accounting guidance provides a hierarchy to use when determining the relative selling price for each unit of accounting. Vendor-specific objective evidence, or VSOE, of selling price, based on the price at which the item is regularly sold by the vendor on a standalone basis, should be used if it exists. If VSOE of selling price is not available, third-party evidence, or TPE, of selling price is used to establish the selling price if it exists. If TPE does not exist, we estimate the best estimated selling price, or BESP. VSOE does not currently exist for any of our deliverables. Additionally, we do not believe TPE is a practical alternative due to differences in our cloud-based subscription service compared to other parties and the availability of relevant third-party pricing information for our cloud-based subscription service and our other services. Accordingly, for arrangements with multiple deliverables that can be separated into different units of accounting, we allocate the arrangement fee to the separate units of accounting based on our BESP. The amount of arrangement fee allocated is limited by contingent revenue, if any.
We determine BESP for our deliverables by considering our overall pricing objectives and market conditions. This includes evaluating our pricing practices, our list prices, the size of our transactions, historical standalone sales and our go-to-market strategy. The determination of BESP is made through consultation with and approval by management. For financial statement presentation purposes, we allocate the fees from our combined units of accounting to subscription and professional services based upon their relative selling price.
Costs of Revenue
Costs of revenue primarily consist of data fees, employee-related expenses (including salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation) related to hosting costs of our cloud-based service, cost of subcontractors, expenses for service delivery (which includes call center support), allocated overhead, the costs of data center capacity and depreciation of owned computer equipment and software.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase. Our cash and cash equivalents generally consist of investments in money market funds, U.S. treasury securities and U.S. government-issued obligations. Cash and cash equivalents are stated at fair value.
Our marketable securities consist of U.S. agency obligations, U.S. treasury securities and money market funds, with maturities at the time of purchase of greater than three months. Marketable securities with remaining maturities in excess of one year are classified as noncurrent. We classify our marketable securities as available-for-sale at the time of purchase based on our intent and are recorded at their estimated fair value. Unrealized gains and losses for available-for-sale securities are recorded in other comprehensive income (loss). We evaluate our investments to assess whether those with unrealized loss positions are other than temporarily impaired. We consider impairments to be other than temporary if they are related to deterioration in credit risk or if it is likely we will sell the securities before the recovery of their cost basis. Realized gains and losses and declines in value judged to be other than temporary are determined based on the specific identification method and are reported in other income, net in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Deferred commissions are the incremental costs that are directly associated with the noncancelable portion of cloud-based subscription service contracts with customers and consist of sales commission paid to our direct sales force. The commissions are deferred and amortized over the noncancelable terms of the related contracts. The deferred commissions amounts are recoverable through the future revenue streams under the noncancelable customer contracts. Amortization of deferred commissions is included in sales and marketing expense in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Deferred revenue primarily consists of professional services and cloud-based subscription services that have been billed in advance of revenue being recognized or the services have not been delivered. Additionally, deferred revenue consists of professional services that have been billed and delivered but the revenue is being deferred and recognized together with a cloud-based subscription contract as a single unit of accounting. We invoice our customers for our cloud-based subscription services based on the terms of the contract, which can be annual, quarterly or monthly installments. We invoice our customers for our professional services and the first year of communication services generally at contract execution. Deferred revenue that is anticipated to be recognized during the succeeding 12-month period is recorded as current deferred revenue, and the remaining portion is recorded as noncurrent.
All stock-based compensation to employees is measured based on the grant-date fair value of the awards and recognized in our condensed consolidated statements of operations over the period during which the employee is required to perform services in exchange for the award (generally the vesting period of the award). We estimate the fair value of stock options granted using the Black-Scholes option valuation model. Compensation expense is recognized over the vesting period of the applicable award using the straight-line method.
Compensation expense for non-employee stock options and warrants is calculated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model and is recorded as the options vest. Options subject to vesting are required to be periodically revalued over their service period, which is generally the same as the vesting period.
Warranties and Indemnification
Our cloud-based service is generally warranted to be performed in a professional manner and in a manner that will comply with the terms of the customer agreements.
Our arrangements generally include certain provisions for indemnifying customers against liabilities if there is a breach of a customer’s data or if our service infringes a third party’s intellectual property rights. To date, we have not incurred any material costs as a result of such indemnifications and have not accrued any liabilities related to such obligations in the financial statements. We have entered into service-level agreements with certain customers warranting defined levels of performance and response and permitting those customers to receive credits for prepaid amounts related to subscription services in the event that we fail to meet those levels. To date, we have not experienced any significant failures to meet defined levels of performance and response as a result of those agreements, and accordingly, we have not accrued any liabilities in the financial statements.
We have also agreed to indemnify our directors and executive officers for costs associated with any fees, expenses, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by any of these persons in any action or proceeding to which any of those persons is, or is threatened to be, made a party by reason of the person’s service as a director or officer, including any action by us, arising out of that person’s services as our director or officer or that person’s services provided to any other company or enterprise at our request. We maintain director and officer insurance coverage that would generally enable us to recover a portion of any future amounts paid. We may also be subject to indemnification obligation by law with respect to the actions of our employees under certain circumstances and in certain jurisdictions.
Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In July 2013, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued guidance regarding the presentation of unrecognized tax benefits when a net operating loss carryforward, similar tax loss, or tax credit carryforward exists. The new guidance requires that an unrecognized tax benefit, or a portion of an unrecognized tax benefit, be presented in the financial statements as a reduction to a deferred tax asset for a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss or a tax credit carryforward when settlement in this manner is available under the tax law. This guidance is effective on a prospective basis for financial statements issued for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2013. Retrospective and early adoption is permitted. We adopted this guidance in our first quarter of 2014 and it did not have an impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
In February 2013, the FASB issued guidance on disclosure requirements for items reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive income. This new guidance requires entities to present (either on the face of the statement of operations or in the notes to the financial statements) the effects on the line items in the statement of operations for amounts reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive income. The new guidance became effective for us beginning in the first quarter of 2014 and it did not have an impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.