SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Cash equivalents include demand deposits and short-term investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased.
The Company maintains its cash deposits at numerous banks located throughout the United States, Canada, India, the United Kingdom and China, which at times, may exceed federally insured limits. UDS, the Company’s operations in China, held $12.7 million of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2014. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to any significant risk on cash and cash equivalents.
As of December 31, 2014, the Company had restricted cash of $1.4 million related to a government grant received by UNIS Document Solutions Co. Ltd., (“UDS”), the Company's joint-venture in China, which was included in other current assets. Restrictions on the cash are removed upon approval by the governmental agency of project-based expenditures supporting technology investments made by UDS.
Concentrations of Credit Risk and Significant Vendors
Concentrations of credit risk with respect to trade receivables are limited due to a large, diverse customer base. No individual customer represented more than 4% of net sales during the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012.
The Company has geographic concentration risk as sales in California, as a percent of total sales, were approximately 30%, 31% and 31% for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
The Company contracts with various suppliers. Although there are a limited number of suppliers that could supply the Company’s inventory, management believes any shortfalls from existing suppliers would be absorbed from other suppliers on comparable terms. However, a change in suppliers could cause a delay in sales and adversely affect results.
Purchases from the Company’s three largest vendors during the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012 comprised approximately 33%, 36%, and 34% respectively, of the Company’s total purchases of inventory and supplies.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
The Company performs periodic credit evaluations of the financial condition of its customers, monitors collections and payments from customers, and generally does not require collateral. The Company provides for the possible inability to collect accounts receivable by recording an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company writes off an account when it is considered uncollectible. The Company estimates the allowance for doubtful accounts based on historical experience, aging of accounts receivable, and information regarding the credit worthiness of its customers. Additionally, the Company provides an allowance for returns and discounts based on historical experience. In 2014, 2013, and 2012 the Company recorded expenses of $0.5 million, $0.6 million and $0.5 million, respectively, related to the allowance for doubtful accounts.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost (determined on a first-in, first-out basis; or average cost) or market. Inventories primarily consist of reprographics materials for use and resale, and equipment for resale. On an ongoing basis, inventories are reviewed and adjusted for estimated obsolescence or unmarketable inventories to reflect the lower of cost or market. Charges to increase inventory reserves are recorded as an increase in cost of sales. Estimated inventory obsolescence has been provided for in the financial statements and has been within the range of management’s expectations. As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, the reserves for inventory obsolescence was $0.9 million.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities reflect temporary differences between the amount of assets and liabilities for financial and tax reporting purposes. Such amounts are adjusted, as appropriate, to reflect changes in tax rates expected to be in effect when the temporary differences reverse. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce the Company's deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. Changes in tax laws or accounting standards and methods may affect recorded deferred taxes in future periods.
When establishing a valuation allowance, the Company considers future sources of taxable income such as future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, future taxable income exclusive of reversing temporary differences and carryforwards and tax planning strategies. A tax planning strategy is an action that: is prudent and feasible; an enterprise ordinarily might not take, but would take to prevent an operating loss or tax credit carryforward from expiring unused; and would result in realization of deferred tax assets. In the event the Company determines that its deferred tax assets, more likely than not, will not be realized in the future, the valuation adjustment to the deferred tax assets will be charged to earnings in the period in which the Company makes such a determination.
As of June 30, 2011, the Company determined that cumulative losses for the preceding twelve quarters constituted sufficient objective evidence (as defined by Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 740-10, Income Taxes) that a valuation allowance was needed. As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, the valuation allowance against certain deferred tax assets was $82.0 million and $85.6 million, respectively.
In future quarters the Company will continue to evaluate its historical results for the preceding twelve quarters and its future projections to determine whether the Company will generate sufficient taxable income to utilize its deferred tax assets, and whether a partial or full valuation allowance is still required. Should the Company generate sufficient taxable income, however, a portion or all of the then current valuation allowance may be reversed. Based on recent earnings in certain jurisdictions there is a reasonable possibility that, within the next year, sufficient positive evidence may become available to reach a conclusion that a portion of the valuation allowance will no longer be needed. As such, the Company may release a significant portion of the valuation allowance within the next 12 months. This release would result in the recognition of certain deferred tax assets and a decrease to income tax expense for the period such release is recorded. Any such adjustment could materially impact our financial position and results of operations.
The Company calculates its current and deferred tax provision based on estimates and assumptions that could differ from the actual results reflected in income tax returns filed in subsequent years. Adjustments based on filed returns are recorded when identified.
Income taxes have not been provided on certain undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries because such earnings are considered to be permanently reinvested.
The amount of taxable income or loss the Company reports to the various tax jurisdictions is subject to ongoing audits by federal, state and foreign tax authorities. The Company's estimate of the potential outcome of any uncertain tax issue is subject to management’s assessment of relevant risks, facts, and circumstances existing at that time. The Company uses a more-likely-than-not threshold for financial statement recognition and measurement of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. The Company records a liability for the difference between the benefit recognized and measured and tax position taken or expected to be taken on its tax return. To the extent that the Company's assessment of such tax positions changes, the change in estimate is recorded in the period in which the determination is made. The Company reports tax-related interest and penalties as a component of income tax expense.
The Company’s effective income tax rate differs from the statutory tax rate primarily due to the valuation allowance on the Company’s deferred tax assets, state income taxes, stock-based compensation, goodwill and other identifiable intangibles, and other discrete items. See Note 9 “Income Taxes” for further information.
Income tax deficiencies and benefits affecting stockholders’ equity are primarily related to employee stock-based compensation.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost and are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, as follows:
10-20 years or lease term, if shorter
Machinery and equipment
Furniture and fixtures
Assets acquired under capital lease arrangements are included in machinery and equipment, are recorded at the present value of the minimum lease payments, and are depreciated using the straight-line method over the life of the asset or term of the lease, whichever is shorter. Expenses for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred, while renewals and betterments are capitalized. Gains or losses on the sale or disposal of property and equipment are reflected in operating income.
The Company accounts for software costs developed for internal use in accordance with ASC 350-40, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other, which requires companies to capitalize certain qualifying costs incurred during the application development stage of the related software development project. The primary use of this software is for internal use and, accordingly, such capitalized software development costs are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the economic lives of the related products not to exceed three years. The Company’s machinery and equipment (see Note 6 “Property and Equipment”) includes $0.1 million and $0.3 million of capitalized software development costs as of December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively, net of accumulated amortization of $17.5 million and $17.5 million as of December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Depreciation expense includes the amortization of capitalized software development costs which amounted to $0.2 million, $0.3 million and $0.5 million during the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company periodically assesses potential impairments of its long-lived assets in accordance with the provisions of ASC 360, Property, Plant, and Equipment. An impairment review is performed whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable. The Company groups its assets at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of cash flows of the other assets and liabilities. The Company has determined that the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are available is the regional level, which is the operating segment level.
Factors considered by the Company include, but are not limited to, significant underperformance relative to historical or projected operating results; significant changes in the manner of use of the acquired assets or the strategy for the overall business; and significant negative industry or economic trends. When the carrying value of a long-lived asset may not be recoverable based upon the existence of one or more of the above indicators of impairment, the Company estimates the future undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition. If the sum of the expected future undiscounted cash flows and eventual disposition is less than the carrying amount of the asset, the Company recognizes an impairment loss. An impairment loss is reflected as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset, based on the fair value if available, or discounted cash flows, if fair value is not available. The Company had no long-lived asset impairments in 2014, 2013 or 2012.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
In connection with acquisitions, the Company applies the provisions of ASC 805, Business Combinations, using the acquisition method of accounting. The excess purchase price over the assessed fair value of net tangible assets and identifiable intangible assets acquired is recorded as goodwill.
In accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other, the Company assesses goodwill for impairment annually as of September 30, and more frequently if events and circumstances indicate that goodwill might be impaired.
Goodwill impairment testing is performed at the reporting unit level. Goodwill is assigned to reporting units at the date the goodwill is initially recorded. Once goodwill has been assigned to reporting units, it no longer retains its association with a particular acquisition, and all of the activities within a reporting unit, whether acquired or internally generated, are available to support the value of the goodwill.
Goodwill impairment testing is a two-step process. Step one involves comparing the fair value of the reporting units to its carrying amount. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit is greater than zero and its fair value is greater than its carrying amount, there is no impairment. If the reporting unit’s carrying amount is greater than the fair value, the second step must be completed to measure the amount of impairment, if any. Step two involves calculating the implied fair value of goodwill by deducting the fair value of all tangible and intangible assets, excluding goodwill, of the reporting unit from the fair value of the reporting unit as determined in step one. The implied fair value of goodwill determined in this step is compared to the carrying value of goodwill. If the implied fair value of goodwill is less than the carrying value of goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized equal to the difference.
The Company determines the fair value of its reporting units using an income approach. Under the income approach, the Company determined fair value based on estimated discounted future cash flows of each reporting unit. The cash flows are discounted by an estimated weighted-average cost of capital, which is intended to reflect the overall level of inherent risk of a reporting unit. Determining the fair value of a reporting unit is judgmental in nature and requires the use of significant estimates and assumptions, including revenue growth rates and EBITDA margins, discount rates and future market conditions, among others. The Company considered market information in assessing the reasonableness of the fair value under the income approach outlined above.
Other intangible assets that have finite lives are amortized over their useful lives. Customer relationships are amortized using the accelerated method, based on customer attrition rates, over their estimated useful lives of 13 (weighted average) years.
Deferred Financing Costs
Direct costs incurred in connection with debt agreements are capitalized as incurred and amortized based on the effective interest method for the Company's borrowings under its term loan credit agreement ("Term A Credit Agreement"). At December 31, 2014 and 2013, the Company had deferred financing costs of $2.4 million and $3.2 million, respectively, net of accumulated amortization of $0.1 million and $0.5 million, respectively.
In 2014, the Company added $2.5 million of deferred financing costs related to its Term A Credit Agreement. In addition, the Company wrote off $2.4 million of deferred financing costs due to the extinguishment, in full, of its previous term loan credit agreement ("Term B Loan Credit Agreement") and the termination of the Company's 2012 Credit Agreement.
In 2013, the Company added $2.7 million of deferred financing costs related to its Term Loan Credit Agreement and amended 2012 Credit Agreement. In addition, the Company wrote off $2.5 million of deferred financing costs due to the extinguishment, in full, of its 10.5% senior secured notes and the amendment to the Company's 2012 Credit Agreement.
Derivative Financial Instruments
As of December 31, 2014 the Company was not party to any derivative or hedging transactions.
Historically, the Company enters into derivative instruments to manage its exposure to changes in interest rates. These instruments allow the Company to raise funds at floating rates and effectively swap them into fixed rates, without the exchange of the underlying principal amount. Such agreements are designated and accounted for under ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging. Derivative instruments are recorded at fair value as either assets or liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Fair Values of Financial Instruments
The following methods and assumptions were used by the Company in estimating the fair value of its financial instruments for disclosure purposes:
Cash equivalents: Cash equivalents are time deposits with maturity of three months or less when purchased, which are highly liquid and readily convertible to cash. Cash equivalents reported in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet were $9.2 million and $12.9 million as of December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively, and are carried at cost and approximate fair value due to the relatively short period to maturity of these instruments.
Contingent Liabilities: The Company recognizes liabilities for future earnout obligations on business acquisitions at their fair value based on discounted projected payments on such obligations. The inputs to the valuation, which are level 3 inputs within the fair value hierarchy, are projected sales to be provided by the acquired businesses based on historical sales trends for which earnout amounts are contractually based. Liabilities for future earnout obligations totaled $1.8 million as of December 31, 2014.
Short- and long-term debt: The carrying amount of the Company’s capital leases reported in the Consolidated Balance Sheets approximates fair value based on the Company’s current incremental borrowing rate for similar types of borrowing arrangements. The carrying amount reported in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2014 for borrowings under its Term A Credit Agreement and other notes payable is $173.0 million and $0.2 million, respectively. The Company has determined the fair value of its borrowings under its Term A Credit Agreement and other notes payable is $173.0 million and $0.2 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2014.
The Company maintains a high deductible insurance policy for a significant portion of its risks and associated liabilities with respect to workers’ compensation. The Company’s deductible is $250 thousand per individual. The accrued liabilities associated with this program are based on the Company’s estimate of the ultimate costs to settle known claims, as well as claims incurred but not yet reported to the Company, as of the balance sheet date. The Company’s estimated liability is not discounted and is based upon an actuarial report obtained from a third party. The actuarial report uses information provided by the Company’s insurance brokers and insurers, combined with the Company’s judgments regarding a number of assumptions and factors, including the frequency and severity of claims, claims development history, case jurisdiction, applicable legislation, and the Company’s claims settlement practices.
The Company is self-insured for healthcare benefits, with a stop-loss at $250 thousand per individual. Liabilities associated with the risks that are retained by the Company are estimated, in part, by considering historical claims experience, demographic factors, severity factors and other actuarial assumptions. The Company’s results could be materially affected by claims and other expenses related to such plans if future occurrences and claims differ from these assumptions and historical trends.
Commitments and Contingencies
In the normal course of business, the Company estimates potential future loss accruals related to legal, workers’ compensation, healthcare, tax and other contingencies. These accruals require management’s judgment on the outcome of various events based on the best available information. However, due to changes in facts and circumstances, the ultimate outcomes could differ from management’s estimates.
The Company applies the provisions of ASC 605, Revenue Recognition. In general, the Company recognizes revenue when (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (ii) delivery of products has occurred or services have been rendered, (iii) the sales price charged is fixed or determinable and (iv) collection is reasonably assured. Net sales include an allowance for estimated sales returns and discounts.
The Company recognizes service revenue when services have been rendered, while revenues from the resale of equipment and supplies are recognized upon delivery to the customer or upon customer pickup. Revenue from equipment service agreements are recognized over the term of the service agreement.
The Company has established contractual pricing for certain large national customer accounts (“Global Solutions”). These contracts generally establish uniform pricing at all operating segments for Global Solutions. Revenues earned from the Company’s Global Solutions are recognized in the same manner as non-Global Solutions revenues.
Included in revenues are fees charged to customers for shipping, handling, and delivery services. Such revenues amounted to $11.6 million, $12.1 million, and $12.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
Revenues from hosted software licensing activities are recognized ratably over the term of the license. Revenues from software licensing activities comprise less than 1% of the Company’s consolidated revenues during the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012.
Management provides for returns, discounts and allowances based on historic experience and adjusts such allowances as considered necessary. To date, such provisions have been within the range of management’s expectations.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
The Company’s comprehensive income (loss) includes foreign currency translation adjustments and the amortized fair value of the company's previous swap transaction, net of taxes. The previous swap transaction was de-designated on December 1, 2010, as it no longer qualified as a cash flow hedge when the cash proceeds from the issuance of the Notes were used to pay off the Company’s previous credit agreement. At that time, the fair value of the Amended Swap Transaction was computed and the effective portion was stored in other comprehensive income and was amortized into income, net of tax effect, on the straight-line method, based on the original notional schedule.
Asset and liability accounts of international operations are translated into the Company’s functional currency, U.S. dollars, at current rates. Revenues and expenses are translated at the weighted-average currency rate for the fiscal year.
Segment and Geographic Reporting
The provisions of ASC 280, Segment Reporting, require public companies to report financial and descriptive information about their reportable operating segments. The Company identifies operating segments based on the various business activities that earn revenue and incur expense, whose operating results are reviewed by the Company's Chief Executive Officer, who is the Company's chief operating decision maker. Because its operating segments have similar products and services, classes of customers, production processes, distribution methods and economic characteristics, the Company is operates as a single reportable segment.
Net sales of the Company’s principal services and products were as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
Total services sales
Equipment and Supplies Sales
Total net sales
Represents work done at the Company’s customer sites which includes Facilities Management (“FM”) and Managed Print Services (“MPS”).
The Company recognizes revenues in geographic areas based on the location to which the product was shipped or services have been rendered. Operations outside the United States have been small but growing. See table below for revenues and long-lived assets, net, excluding intangible assets, attributable to the Company’s U.S. operations and foreign operations.
Year Ended December 31,
Revenues from external customers
Long-lived assets, net, excluding intangible assets
Advertising and Shipping and Handling Costs
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and approximated $1.7 million, $1.4 million, and $1.5 million during the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Shipping and handling costs incurred by the Company are included in cost of sales.
The Company applies the Black-Scholes valuation model in determining the fair value of share-based payments to employees, which is then amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period.
Total stock-based compensation for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, was $3.8 million, $3.2 million and $2.0 million, respectively and was recorded in selling, general, and administrative expenses, consistent with the classification of the underlying salaries. In accordance with ASC 718, Income Taxes, the excess tax benefit resulting from stock-based compensation, in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, are classified as financing cash inflows.
The weighted average fair value at the grant date for options issued in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, was $3.69, $1.57 and $2.97 respectively. The fair value of each option grant was estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model using the following weighted average assumptions for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013 and 2012:
Year Ended December 31,
Weighted average assumptions used:
Risk free interest rate
Expected dividend yield
Using historical exercise data as a basis, the Company determined that the expected term for stock options issued in 2014, 2013 and 2012 was 7.1 years, 7.0 years and 7.1 years, respectively.
For fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012, expected stock price volatility is based on the Company’s historical volatility for a period equal to the expected term. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant with an equivalent remaining term. The Company has not paid dividends in the past and does not currently plan to pay dividends in the near future. The Company assumed a forfeiture rate of 3% in 2014, 3% in 2013 and 2% in 2012. The Company’s assumed forfeiture rate is based on the historical forfeiture rate for employees at similar levels in the Company. The Company reviews its forfeiture rate at least on an annual basis.
As of December 31, 2014, total unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to nonvested stock-based compensation was approximately $3.7 million, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of approximately 1.8 years.
For additional information, see Note 10 “Employee Stock Purchase Plan and Stock Plan.”
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development activities relate to costs associated with the design and testing of new technology or enhancements and maintenance to existing technology. Such costs are expensed as incurred are primarily recorded to cost of sales. In total, research and development amounted to $6.3 million, $5.5 million and $5.4 million during the fiscal years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
The Company accounted for its investment in UNIS Document Solutions Co. Ltd., (“UDS”) under the purchase method of accounting, in accordance with ASC 805, Business Combinations. UDS has been consolidated in the Company’s financial statements from the date of acquisition. Noncontrolling interest, which represents the 35 percent non-controlling interest in UDS, is reflected on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements.
The Company bills sales taxes, as applicable, to its customers. The Company acts as an agent and bills, collects, and remits the sales tax to the proper government jurisdiction. The sales taxes are accounted for on a net basis, and therefore are not included as part of the Company’s revenue.
Earnings Per Share
The Company accounts for earnings per share in accordance with ASC 260, Earnings Per Share. Basic earnings per share are computed by dividing net income attributable to ARC by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings per common share is computed similarly to basic earnings per share except that the denominator is increased to include the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if common shares subject to outstanding options and acquisition rights had been issued and if the additional common shares were dilutive. Common share equivalents are excluded from the computation if their effect is anti-dilutive. There were 1.5 million, 2.1 million and 2.3 million common stock options excluded as their effect would have been anti-dilutive for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively. The Company’s common share equivalents consist of stock options issued under the Company’s Stock Plan.
Basic and diluted weighted average common shares outstanding were calculated as follows for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012:
Year Ended December 31,
Weighted average common shares outstanding during the period — basic
Effect of dilutive stock options
Weighted average common shares outstanding during the period — diluted
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09 which supersedes the existing revenue recognition requirements in “Revenue Recognition (Topic 605).” The new guidance requires entities to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that is expected to be received in exchange for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within that reporting period. Early adoption is not permitted. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of the adoption of ASU 2014-09 on its consolidated financial statements.
In April 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-08. The new guidance raises the threshold for a disposal to qualify as a discontinued operation and requires new disclosures of both discontinued operations and certain other disposals that do not meet the definition of a discontinued operation. It is effective for annual periods beginning on or after December 15, 2014. Early adoption is permitted but only for disposals that have not been reported in financial statements previously issued. The adoption of ASU 2014-08 is not expected to have an impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements. The Company will adopt this standard effective January 1, 2015. Due to the change in requirements for reporting discontinued operations described above, presentation and disclosures of future transactions after adoption may be different than under current standards.