Significant Accounting Policies
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Investments
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand, demand deposits with banks, highly liquid investments in money market funds, commercial paper, government securities, certificates of deposit, and corporate debt securities, which are readily convertible into cash. All highly liquid investments purchased with original maturities of three months or less are classified as cash and cash equivalents.
Investments in Available-for-Sale and Trading Securities
The Company's investments in publicly-traded debt and equity securities are classified as available-for-sale. Available-for-sale investments are initially recorded at cost and periodically adjusted to fair value in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Unrealized gains and losses on these investments are reported as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income. Realized gains and losses are determined based on the specific identification method and are reported in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company periodically evaluates its investments to determine if impairment charges are required. The Company considers various factors in determining whether to recognize an impairment charge, including the length of time the investment has been in a loss position, the extent to which the fair value has been less than the Company's cost basis, the investment's financial condition, and near-term prospects of the investee. If the Company determines that the decline in an investment's fair value is other than temporary, the difference is recognized as an impairment loss in its Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company's non-qualified compensation plan is invested in mutual funds which are classified as trading securities and reported at fair value in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The realized and unrealized holding gains and losses are reported in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company has privately-held investments, which are included in other long-term assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. These investments are carried at cost, adjusted for any impairment, as the Company does not have a controlling interest and does not have the ability to exercise significant influence over these companies. These investments are inherently high risk as the market for technologies or products manufactured by these companies are usually in their early stages at the time of the investment by the Company and such markets may never be significant. The Company measures the fair value of privately-held investments using an analysis of the financial conditions and near term prospects of the investees, including recent financing activities and their capital structure. Realized gains and losses, if any, are reported in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received upon sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. When determining fair value, the Company considers the principal or most advantageous market in which it transacts, and considers assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability. The Company applies the following fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value into three levels and bases the categorization within the hierarchy upon the lowest level of input that is available and significant to the fair value measurement:
Level 1 – Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 – Quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly through market corroboration, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument. These inputs are valued using market based approaches.
Level 3 – Inputs are unobservable inputs based on the Company’s assumptions. These inputs, if any, are valued using internal financial models.
The Company uses derivatives to partially offset its market exposure to fluctuations in certain foreign currencies. The Company does not enter into derivatives for speculative or trading purposes.
The Company uses foreign currency forward or option contracts to hedge certain forecasted foreign currency transactions relating to operating expenses. These derivatives are designated as cash flow hedges. Execution of these cash flow hedge derivatives typically occurs every month with maturities of one year or less. These derivatives are carried at fair value and the effective portion of the derivative's gain or loss is initially reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income, and upon occurrence of the forecasted transaction, is subsequently reclassified into the costs of services or operating expense line item to which the hedged transaction relates. The Company records any ineffectiveness of the hedging instruments in other expense, net, on its Consolidated Statements of Operations. Cash flows from such hedges are classified as operating activities. All amounts within other comprehensive income are expected to be reclassified into earnings within the next twelve months.
The Company also uses foreign currency forward contracts to mitigate variability in gains and losses generated from the remeasurement of certain monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies. These derivatives do not qualify for special hedge accounting treatment. These derivatives are carried at fair value with changes recorded in other expense, net in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives are largely offset by remeasurement of the underlying assets and liabilities. Cash flows from such derivatives are classified as operating activities. These foreign exchange forward contracts have maturities of one year or less.
Inventory consists primarily of component parts to be used in the manufacturing process and is stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is computed using standard cost, which approximates actual cost, on a first-in, first-out basis. A charge is recorded to cost of product when inventory is determined to be in excess of anticipated demand or considered obsolete. The point of loss recognition, a new, lower-cost basis for that inventory is established, and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in the newly established cost basis.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method, over the estimated useful lives of the following assets:
Estimated Useful Life (years)
Computers, equipment, and software
3 to 5
Furniture and fixtures
Building and building improvements
7 to 40
10 to 40
Lease term, not to exceed 10 years
Construction in progress is related to the construction or development of property and equipment that have not yet been placed in service for their intended use. Depreciation for equipment commences once it is placed in service and depreciation for buildings and leasehold improvements commences once they are ready for their intended use.
Effective April 1, 2013, the Company extended the useful lives of certain computers and equipment based on actual historical usage, which demonstrated longer useful lives, as well as the planned use of these assets. The change was accounted for as a change in estimate and applied prospectively. During the year ended December 31, 2013, this change in accounting estimate decreased depreciation expense by approximately $28.3 million or $0.04 per diluted share.
Goodwill and Other Long-Lived Assets
Goodwill represents the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired in a business combination or an acquisition that are not individually identified and separately recorded. The excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair value of net assets of businesses acquired in a business combination is recognized as goodwill. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually during the fourth quarter or more frequently if certain indicators are present. Other intangible assets acquired in a business combination and determined to have an indefinite useful life are not amortized but are assessed for potential impairment annually or when events or circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts might be impaired.
The Company performs its annual goodwill impairment analysis at its reporting unit level, which may be one level below its operating segment level during the fourth quarter of each year or more frequently if certain indicators are present. The fair value of the Company's reporting units is determined using both the income and market valuation approaches. Under the income approach, the fair value of the reporting unit is based on the present value of estimated future cash flows that the reporting unit is expected to generate over its remaining life. Under the market approach, the value of the reporting unit is based on an analysis that compares the value of the reporting unit to values of publicly traded companies in similar lines of business. In the application of the income and market valuation approaches, the Company is required to make estimates of future operating trends and judgments on discount rates and other variables. Actual future results related to assumed variables could differ from these estimates.
Long-lived assets, such as property, plant, and equipment, and purchased intangible assets subject to amortization, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset, or asset group, to estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset, or asset group. An impairment charge is recognized by the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset, or asset group, exceeds its fair value.
The Company amortizes intangible assets with estimable useful lives on a straight-line basis over their useful lives.
Revenue is recognized when all of the following criteria have been met:
Persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists. The Company generally relies upon sales contracts or agreements, and customer purchase orders to determine the existence of an arrangement.
Delivery has occurred. The Company uses shipping terms and related documents, or written evidence of customer acceptance, when applicable, to verify delivery or performance.
Sales price is fixed or determinable. The Company assesses whether the sales price is fixed or determinable based on the payment terms and whether the sales price is subject to refund or adjustment.
Collectability is reasonably assured. The Company assesses collectability based on creditworthiness of customers as determined by its credit checks, their payment histories, or changes in circumstances that indicate that collectability is not reasonably assured.
When sales arrangements contain multiple elements, including software and non-software components that function together to deliver the tangible products' essential functionality, the Company allocates revenue to each element based on a selling price hierarchy. The selling price for a deliverable is based on either vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”) if available, third-party evidence (“TPE”) if VSOE is not available, or estimated selling price (“ESP”) if neither VSOE nor TPE is available. The Company then recognizes revenue on each deliverable in accordance with its policies for product and service revenue recognition. VSOE of selling price is based on the price charged when the element is sold separately. In determining VSOE, the Company requires that a substantial majority of the selling prices fall within a reasonable range based on historical discounting trends for specific products and services. TPE of selling price is established by evaluating largely interchangeable competitor products or services in stand-alone sales to similarly situated customers. However, as the Company's products contain a significant element of proprietary technology and its solutions offer substantially different features and functionality, the comparable pricing of third-party products with similar functionality typically cannot be obtained. ESP is established considering multiple factors including, but not limited to pricing practices in different geographies and through different sales channels, gross margin objectives, internal costs, competitor pricing strategies, and industry technology lifecycles.
In multiple element arrangements where software deliverables are included, revenue is allocated to each separate unit of accounting for each of the non-software deliverables and to the software deliverables as a group using the relative selling prices of each of the deliverables in the arrangement based on the aforementioned selling price hierarchy. If the arrangement contains more than one software deliverable, the arrangement consideration allocated to the software deliverables as a group is then allocated to each software deliverable using the residual method when VSOE of fair value of the undelivered items exists. Under the residual method, the amount of revenue allocated to delivered elements equals the total arrangement consideration less the aggregate fair value of any undelivered elements. If VSOE of one or more undelivered items does not exist, revenue from the entire arrangement is deferred and recognized at the earlier of: (i) delivery of those elements or (ii) when fair value can be established unless maintenance services is the only undelivered element, in which case, the entire arrangement fee is recognized ratably over the maintenance service period.
The Company limits the amount of revenue recognition for delivered elements to the amount that is not contingent on the future delivery of products or services or subject to customer-specific return or refund privileges.
The Company records reductions to revenue for estimated product returns and pricing adjustments, such as rebates and price protection, in the same period that the related revenue is recorded. The amount of these reductions is based on historical sales returns and price protection credits, specific criteria outlined in rebate agreements, and other factors known at the time.
A portion of the Company's sales is made through distributors under agreements allowing for pricing credits or rights of return. As reliable estimates of these credits or returns cannot be made, product revenue on sales made through these distributors is recognized upon sell-through as reported by the distributors to the Company. Deferred revenue on shipments to distributors reflects the effects of distributor pricing credits given and the amount of gross margin expected to be realized upon sell-through. Deferred revenue is recorded net of the related product costs of revenue.
Service revenues include revenue from maintenance, training, and professional services. Maintenance is offered under renewable contracts. Revenue from maintenance service contracts is deferred and recognized ratably over the contractual support period, which is generally one to three years. Revenue from training and professional services is recognized as services are completed or ratably over the contractual period, which is generally one year or less.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
The allowance for doubtful accounts is based on the Company's assessment of the collectability of customer accounts. The Company regularly reviews its receivables that remain outstanding past their applicable payment terms and establishes an allowance by considering factors such as historical experience, credit quality, age of the accounts receivable balances, and current economic conditions that may affect a customer's ability to pay.
The Company generally offers a one-year warranty on all of its hardware products, a 90-day warranty on the media that contains the software embedded in the products. Warranty costs are recognized as part of the Company's cost of sales based on associated material costs, labor costs, and overhead at the time revenue is recognized. Material costs are estimated primarily based upon the historical costs to repair or replace product returns within the warranty period. Labor and overhead costs are estimated primarily based upon historical trends in the cost to support customer cases within the warranty period.
Contract Manufacturer Liabilities
The Company establishes a liability for non-cancelable, non-returnable purchase commitments with its contract manufacturers for carrying charges, quantities in excess of its demand forecasts, or obsolete material charges for components purchased by the contract manufacturers to meet the Company’s demand forecast or customer orders. The demand forecasts are based upon historical trends and analysis from the Company's sales and marketing organizations, adjusted for overall market conditions.
Research and Development
Costs to research, design, and develop the Company's products are expensed as incurred.
Software Development Costs
Capitalization of software development costs for software to be sold, leased, or otherwise marketed begins when a product's technological feasibility has been established and ends when a product is available for general release to customers. Generally, the Company's products are released soon after technological feasibility has been established. As a result, costs incurred between achieving technological feasibility and product general availability have not been significant. The Company capitalizes costs associated with internal-use software systems that have reached the application development stage and are primarily attributable to the Company's enterprise resource planning ("ERP") implementation. Such capitalized costs include external direct costs utilized in developing or obtaining the applications and payroll and payroll-related costs for employees, who are directly associated with the development of the applications.
Advertising costs are charged to sales and marketing expense as incurred. Advertising expense was $20.1 million, $20.0 million, and $17.2 million, for 2013, 2012, and 2011, respectively.
Assets and liabilities of foreign operations with non-U.S. Dollar functional currency are translated to U.S. Dollars using exchange rates in effect at the end of the period. Revenue and expenses are translated to U.S. Dollars using average exchange rates for the period. The resulting translation adjustments are included in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets in the stockholders’ equity section as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income. For the Company’s international subsidiaries in which the functional currency is the U.S. dollar, the Company records foreign exchange gains and losses for assets and liabilities in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Remeasurement adjustments are recorded in other expense, net in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company is subject to the possibility of various loss contingencies arising in the ordinary course of business. Management considers the likelihood of loss related to an asset, or the incurrence of a liability, as well as its ability to reasonably estimate the amount of loss, in determining loss contingencies. An estimated loss contingency is accrued when it is probable that an asset has been impaired or a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. The Company regularly evaluates current information available to determine whether such accruals should be adjusted and whether new accruals are required.
The Company utilizes the Black-Scholes-Merton (“BSM”) option-pricing model to estimate the fair value of its stock options and Employee Stock Purchase Plan ("ESPP") shares. The Company determines the fair value of its restricted stock units ("RSUs"), restricted stock awards ("RSAs"), and performance share awards ("PSAs") based on the closing market price of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant. Share-based compensation expense is based on the fair value of the underlying awards and amortized on a straight-line basis, net of estimated forfeitures. With respect to PSAs, that generally vest after three years, for the portion of the award attributable to each performance year, the Company recognizes PSA expense on a straight-line basis over the remaining vesting period starting in the period in which the annual performance targets are set for each such performance year, to the extent that the performance target is expected to be met.
The BSM model requires various highly subjective assumptions that represent management's best estimates of volatility, risk-free interest rate, expected life, and dividend yield. The expected volatility is based on the implied volatility of market-traded options on the Company's common stock, adjusted for other relevant factors including historical volatility of the Company’s common stock over the most recent period commensurate with the estimated expected life of the Company’s stock options. The expected life of a stock option award is based on historical experience.
Provision for Income Taxes
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected tax consequences of temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that will more likely than not be realized.
The Company accounts for uncertainty in income taxes using a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon settlement. The Company classifies the liability for unrecognized tax benefits as current to the extent that the Company anticipates payment (or receipt) of cash within one year. Interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions are recognized in the provision for income taxes.
Concentrations of Risk
Financial instruments that subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, investments, and accounts receivable. The Company invests only in high-quality credit instruments and maintains its cash, cash equivalents and available-for-sale investments in fixed income securities with several high-quality institutions. Deposits held with banks, including those held in foreign branches of global banks, may exceed the amount of insurance provided on such deposits. These deposits may be redeemed upon demand and, therefore, bear minimal credit risk.
The Company’s derivatives expose it to credit risk to the extent that counterparties may be unable to meet the terms of the agreement. To mitigate concentration of risk related to its derivatives, the Company establishes counterparty limits to major credit-worthy financial institutions. In addition, the potential risk of loss with any one counterparty resulting from this type of credit risk is monitored and the derivatives transacted with these entities are relatively short in duration. Therefore, the Company does not expect material losses as a result of defaults by counterparties.
Generally, credit risk with respect to accounts receivable is diversified due to the number of entities comprising the Company's customer base and their dispersion across different geographic locations throughout the world. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and generally does not require collateral on accounts receivable. During the years ended December 31, 2013 and December 31, 2011, no single customer accounted for 10% or more of net revenues. During the year ended December 31, 2012, Verizon Communications, Inc. ("Verizon") accounted for 10.3% of net revenues.
The Company relies on sole suppliers for certain of its components such as application-specific integrated circuits ("ASICs") and custom sheet metal. Additionally, the Company relies primarily on a limited number of significant independent contract manufacturers for the production of its products. The inability of any supplier or manufacturer to fulfill supply requirements of the Company could negatively impact future operating results.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the Company to make judgments, assumptions, and estimates that affect the amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying notes. The Company bases its estimates and assumptions on current facts, historical experience, and various other factors that it believes are reasonable under the circumstances, to determine the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. To the extent there are material differences between the Company's estimates and the actual results, the Company's future consolidated results of operation may be affected.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In July 2013, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2013-11, Income Taxes (Topic 740)—Presentation of an Unrecognized Tax Benefit When a Net Operating Loss Carryforward, a Similar Tax Loss, or a Tax Credit Carryforward Exists (a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force) ("ASU 2013-11") to provide explicit guidance on the financial statement presentation of an unrecognized tax benefit when a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward exists. ASU 2013-11 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 31, 2013. The Company intends to adopt this standard prospectively in the first quarter of 2014 and the adoption will not result in a change to the tax provision. The Company does not expect a significant impact to its presentation of long-term taxes payable or its deferred tax assets.