NOTE 1 – SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete consolidated financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, which are necessary for a fair presentation of the results of operations in these financial statements, have been made.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could vary from these estimates. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior period amounts to conform to the current period presentation.
The Company evaluated subsequent events through the date its financial statements were issued.
These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2010. Except for accounting policies that have been modified or recently adopted as described below, there have been no significant changes to the Company’s accounting policies as disclosed in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2010.
Loans that management has the intent and ability to hold for the foreseeable future or until maturity or pay-off are considered LHFI. The Company’s loan balance is comprised of loans held in portfolio, including commercial loans, consumer loans, and residential loans. Interest income on all types of loans, except those classified as nonaccrual, is accrued based upon the outstanding principal amounts using the effective yield method.
Commercial loans (commercial & industrial, commercial real estate, and commercial construction) are considered to be past due when payment is not received from the borrower by the contractually specified due date. The Company typically classifies commercial loans as nonaccrual when one of the following events occurs: (i) interest or principal has been past due 90 days or more, unless the loan is both well secured and in the process of collection; (ii) collection of recorded interest or principal is not anticipated; or (iii) income for the loan is recognized on a cash basis due to the deterioration in the financial condition of the debtor. When a loan is placed on nonaccrual, unpaid interest is reversed against interest income. Interest income on nonaccrual loans, if recognized, is recognized after the principal has been reduced to zero. If and when commercial borrowers demonstrate the ability to repay a loan in accordance with the contractual terms of a loan classified as nonaccrual, the loan may be returned to accrual status, upon meeting all regulatory, accounting, and internal policy requirements.
Consumer loans (guaranteed student loans, other direct, indirect, and credit card) are considered to be past due when payment is not received from the borrower by the contractually specified due date. Other direct and indirect loans are typically placed on nonaccrual when payments have been past due for 90 days or more except when the borrower has declared bankruptcy, in which case, they are moved to nonaccrual status once they become 60 days past due. Credit card loans are never placed on nonaccrual status but rather are charged off once they are 180 days past due. Guaranteed student loans continue to accrue interest regardless of delinquency status because collection of principal and interest is reasonably assured. When a loan is placed on nonaccrual, unpaid interest is reversed against interest income. Interest income on nonaccrual loans, if recognized, is recognized after the principal has been reduced to zero. Nonaccrual consumer loans are typically returned to accrual status once they are no longer past due.
Residential loans (guaranteed residential mortgages, nonguaranteed residential mortgages, home equity products, and residential construction) are considered to be past due when a monthly payment is due and unpaid for one month. Nonguaranteed residential mortgages and residential construction loans are generally placed on nonaccrual when payments are 120 days past due. Home equity products are generally placed on nonaccrual when payments are 90 days past due. The exception for nonguaranteed residential mortgages, residential construction loans, and home equity products is when the borrower has declared bankruptcy, in which case, they are moved to nonaccrual status once they become 60 days past due. Guaranteed residential mortgages continue to accrue interest regardless of delinquency status because collection of principal and interest is reasonably assured. When a loan is placed on nonaccrual, unpaid interest is reversed against interest income. Interest income on nonaccrual loans, if recognized, is recognized on a cash basis. Nonaccrual residential loans are typically returned to accrual status once they no longer meet the delinquency threshold that resulted in them initially being moved to nonaccrual status.
TDRs are loans in which the borrower is experiencing financial difficulty and the Company has granted an economic concession to the borrower. To date, the Company’s TDRs have been predominantly first and second lien residential mortgages and home equity lines of credit. Prior to modifying a borrower’s loan terms, the Company performs an evaluation of the borrower’s financial condition and ability to service under the potential modified loan terms. The types of concessions granted are generally interest rate reductions and/or term extensions. If a loan is accruing at the time of modification, the loan remains on accrual status and is subject to the Company’s charge-off and nonaccrual policies. See the “Allowance for Credit Losses” section within this Note for further information regarding these policies. If a loan is on nonaccrual before it is determined to be a TDR then the loan remains on nonaccrual. TDRs may be returned to accrual status if there has been at least a six month sustained period of repayment performance by the borrower. Consistent with regulatory guidance, upon sustained performance and classification as a TDR through the Company’s year end, the loan will be removed from TDR status as long as the modified terms were market-based at the time of modification. Generally, once a residential loan becomes a TDR, we expect that the loan will likely continue to be reported as a TDR for its remaining life even after returning to accruing status as the modified rates and terms at the time of modification were typically more favorable than those generally available in the market. Interest income recognition on impaired loans is dependent upon nonaccrual status, TDR designation, and loan type as discussed above.
For loans accounted for at amortized cost, fees and incremental direct costs associated with the loan origination and pricing process, as well as premiums and discounts, are deferred and amortized as level yield adjustments over the respective loan terms. Premiums for purchased credit cards are amortized on a straight-line basis over one year. Fees received for providing loan commitments that result in funded loans are recognized over the term of the loan as an adjustment of the yield. If a loan is never funded, the commitment fee is recognized into noninterest income at the expiration of the commitment period. Origination fees and costs are recognized in noninterest income and expense at the time of origination for newly-originated loans that are accounted for at fair value. See Note 3, “Loans,” for additional information.
Allowance for Credit Losses
The Allowance for Credit Losses is composed of the ALLL and the reserve for unfunded commitments. The Company’s ALLL is the amount considered adequate to absorb probable losses within the portfolio based on management’s evaluation of the size and current risk characteristics of the loan portfolio. In addition to the review of credit quality through ongoing credit review processes, the Company employs a variety of modeling and estimation techniques to measure credit risk and construct an appropriate and adequate ALLL. Numerous asset quality measures, both quantitative and qualitative, are considered in estimating the ALLL. Such evaluation considers numerous factors for each of the loan portfolio segments, including, but not limited to net charge-off trends, internal risk ratings, changes in internal risk ratings, loss forecasts, collateral values, geographic location, delinquency rates, nonperforming and restructured loan status, origination channel, product mix, underwriting practices, industry conditions, and economic trends. In addition to these factors, refreshed FICO scores are considered for consumer and residential loans and single name borrower concentration is considered for commercial loans. These credit quality factors are incorporated into various loss estimation models and analytical tools utilized in the ALLL process and/or are qualitatively considered in evaluating the overall reasonableness of the ALLL.
Large commercial (all loan classes) nonaccrual loans and certain consumer (other direct), residential (nonguaranteed residential mortgages, home equity products, and residential construction), and commercial (all classes) loans whose terms have been modified in a TDR are individually identified for evaluation of impairment. A loan is considered impaired when it is probable that the Company will be unable to collect all amounts due, including principal and interest, according to the contractual terms of the agreement. If necessary, a specific allowance is established for individually evaluated impaired loans. The specific allowance established for these loans is based on a thorough analysis of the most probable source of repayment, including the present value of the loan’s expected future cash flows, the loan’s estimated market value, or the estimated fair value of the underlying collateral depending on the most likely source of repayment. Any change in the present value attributable to the passage of time is recognized through the provision for credit losses.
General allowances are established for loans and leases grouped into pools based on similar characteristics. In this process, general allowance factors are based on an analysis of historical charge-off experience, portfolio trends, regional and national economic conditions, and expected loss given default derived from the Company’s internal risk rating process. Other adjustments may be made to the ALLL after an assessment of internal and external influences on credit quality that are not fully reflected in the historical loss or other risk rating data. These influences may include elements such as changes in credit underwriting, concentration risk, macroeconomic conditions, and/or recent observable asset quality trends.
The Company’s charge-off policy meets regulatory minimums. Losses on unsecured consumer loans are recognized at 90 days past due compared to the regulatory loss criteria of 120 days past due. Losses, as appropriate, on secured consumer loans, including residential real estate, are typically recognized between 120 and 180 days past due, depending on the collateral type, in compliance with the FFIEC guidelines. Loans that have been partially charged-off remain on nonperforming status, regardless of collateral value, until specific borrower performance criteria are met.
The Company uses numerous sources of information in order to make an appropriate evaluation of a property’s value. Estimated collateral valuations are based on appraisals, broker price opinions, recent sales of foreclosed properties, automated valuation models, other property-specific information, and relevant market information, supplemented by the Company’s internal property valuation professionals. The value estimate is based on an orderly disposition and marketing period of the property. In limited instances, the Company adjusts externally provided appraisals for justifiable and well-supported reasons, such as an appraiser not being aware of certain property-specific factors or recent sales information. Appraisals generally represent the “as is” value of the property but may be adjusted based on the intended disposition strategy of the property.
For commercial real estate loans secured by property, an acceptable third-party appraisal or other form of evaluation, as permitted by regulation, is obtained prior to the origination of the loan and upon a subsequent transaction involving a material change in terms. In addition, updated valuations may be obtained during the life of a transaction, as appropriate, such as when a loan's performance materially deteriorates. In situations where an updated appraisal has not been received or a formal evaluation performed, the Company monitors factors that can positively or negatively impact property value, such as the date of the last valuation, the volatility of property values in specific markets, changes in the value of similar properties, and changes in the characteristics of individual properties. Changes in collateral value affect the ALLL through the risk rating or impaired loan evaluation process. Charge-offs are recognized when the amount of the loss is quantifiable and timing is known. The charge-off is measured based on the difference between the loan’s carrying value, including deferred fees, and the estimated net realizable value of the loan, net of estimated selling costs. When assessing property value for the purpose of determining a charge-off, a third-party appraisal or an independently derived internal evaluation is generally employed.
For mortgage loans secured by residential property where the Company is proceeding with a foreclosure action, a new valuation is obtained prior to the loan becoming 180 days past due and, if required, the loan is written down to net realizable value, net of estimated selling costs. In the event the Company decides not to proceed with a foreclosure action, the full balance of the loan is charged-off. If a loan remains in the foreclosure process for 12 months past the original charge-off, typically at 180 days past due, the Company obtains a new valuation and, if required, writes the loan down to the new valuation, less estimated selling costs. At foreclosure, a new valuation is obtained and the loan is transferred to OREO at the new valuation less estimated selling costs; any loan balance in excess of the transfer value is charged-off. Estimated declines in value of the residential collateral between these formal evaluation events are captured in the ALLL based on changes in the house price index in the applicable metropolitan statistical area or other market information.
In addition to the ALLL, the Company also estimates probable losses related to unfunded lending commitments, such as letters of credit and binding unfunded loan commitments. Unfunded lending commitments are analyzed and segregated by risk similar to funded loans based on the Company’s internal risk rating scale. These risk classifications, in combination with an analysis of historical loss experience, probability of commitment usage, existing economic conditions, and any other pertinent information, result in the estimation of the reserve for unfunded lending commitments. The reserve for unfunded lending commitments is reported on the Consolidated Balance Sheets in other liabilities and through the third quarter of 2009, the provision associated with changes in the unfunded lending commitment reserve was reported in the Consolidated Statements of Income in noninterest expense. Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2009, the Company began recording changes in the unfunded lending commitment reserve in the provision for credit losses. See Note 4, “Allowance for Credit Losses,” for additional information.
Accounting Policies Recently Adopted and Pending Accounting Pronouncements
In January 2010, the FASB issued ASU 2010-06, an update to ASC 820-10, “Fair Value Measurements.” This ASU requires the disclosure of transfers in and out of level 1 and 2 of the fair value hierarchy, along with the reasons for the transfers and a gross presentation of purchases and sales of level 3 instruments. Additionally, the ASU requires fair value measurement disclosures for each class of assets and liabilities and enhanced disclosures around level 2 valuation techniques and inputs. The Company adopted the disclosure requirements for level 1 and 2 transfers and the expanded fair value measurement and valuation disclosures effective January 1, 2010. The disclosure requirements for level 3 activities were effective for the interim reporting period ending March 31, 2011. The required disclosures are included in Note 12, “Fair Value Election and Measurement.” The adoption of these disclosure requirements had no impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, or EPS.
In July 2010, the FASB issued ASU 2010-20, “Disclosures about the Credit Quality of Financing Receivables and the Allowance for Credit Losses.” The ASU requires more disclosures about the credit quality of financing receivables, which include loans, lease receivables, and other long-term receivables, and the credit allowances held against them. The disclosure requirements that were effective as of December 31, 2010 are included in Note 3, “Loans,” and Note 4, “Allowance for Credit Losses.” Disclosures about activity that occurs during a reporting period were effective for the interim reporting period ending March 31, 2011 are also included in Note 3, “Loans,” and Note 4, “Allowance for Credit Losses.” The adoption of the ASU did not have an impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, or EPS.
In December 2010, the FASB issued ASU 2010-28, “When to Perform Step 2 of the Goodwill Impairment Test for Reporting Units with Zero or Negative Carrying Amounts.” The update requires companies to perform step 2 of the goodwill impairment analysis if the carrying value of a reporting unit is zero or negative and it is more likely than not that goodwill for that reporting unit is impaired. The adoption of the ASU as of January 1, 2011 did not have an impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, or EPS.
In April 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-02, “Receivables (Topic 310): A Creditor’s Determination of Whether a Restructuring Is a Troubled Debt Restructuring.” The ASU provides additional guidance to assist creditors in determining whether a modification of a receivable meets the criteria to be considered a TDR, both for purposes of recognizing loan losses and additional disclosures regarding TDRs. A modification of a credit arrangement constitutes a TDR if the debtor is experiencing financial difficulties and the Company grants a concession to the debtor that it would not otherwise consider. The clarifications for classification apply to all restructurings occurring on or after January 1, 2011. The measurement of impairment for those newly identified TDRs was applied prospectively beginning on July 1, 2011. The related disclosures, which were previously deferred by ASU 2011-01, were required for the interim reporting period ending September 30, 2011 and subsequent reporting periods. The required disclosures and impact as a result of adoption are included in Note 3, “Loans.” The adoption of the ASU did not have a significant impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, or EPS.
In April 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-03, “Transfers and Servicing (Topic 860): Reconsideration of Effective Control for Repurchase Agreements.” A repurchase agreement is a transaction in which a company sells financial instruments to a buyer, typically in exchange for cash, and simultaneously enters into an agreement to repurchase the same or substantially the same financial instruments from the buyer at a stated price plus accrued interest at a future date. The determination of whether the transaction is accounted for as a sale or a collateralized financing is determined by assessing whether the seller retains effective control of the financial instrument. The ASU changes the assessment of effective control by removing the criterion that requires the seller to have the ability to repurchase or redeem financial assets with substantially the same terms, even in the event of default by the buyer and the collateral maintenance implementation guidance related to that criterion. The Company will apply the new guidance to repurchase agreements entered into or amended after January 1, 2012. The Company does not expect the ASU to have a significant impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, or EPS.
In May 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-04, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Amendments to Achieve Common Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure Requirements in U.S. GAAP and IFRSs.” The primary purpose of the ASU is to conform the language in the fair value measurements guidance in U.S. GAAP and IFRS. The ASU also clarifies how to apply existing fair value measurement and disclosure requirements. Further, the ASU requires additional disclosures about transfers between level 1 and 2 of the fair value hierarchy, quantitative information for level 3 inputs, and the level of the fair value measurement hierarchy for items that are not measured at fair value in the statement of financial position but for which the fair value is required to be disclosed. The ASU is effective for the interim reporting period ending March 31, 2012. The Company is evaluating the impact of the ASU; however, it is not expected to have a significant impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, or EPS.
In June 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-05, “Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Presentation of Comprehensive Income.” The ASU requires presentation of the components of comprehensive income in either a continuous statement of comprehensive income or two separate but consecutive statements. The update does not change the items presented in OCI and does not affect the calculation or reporting of EPS. The guidance is effective on January 1, 2012 and must be applied retrospectively for all periods presented. The Company is in the process of evaluating the presentation options; however, adoption of the ASU will not have an impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, or EPS.
In September 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-08, “Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Testing Goodwill for Impairment.” The ASU amends interim and annual goodwill impairment testing requirements. Under the ASU, an entity is not required to calculate the fair value of a reporting unit unless the entity determines that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. The more likely than not threshold is defined as having a likelihood of more than 50 percent. The guidance is effective for annual and interim goodwill impairment tests beginning January 1, 2012 with early adoption permitted. The Company has not elected to early adopt the amendments; however, adoption of the ASU will not have an impact on the Company's financial position, results of operations, or EPS.