DESCRIPTION OF THE BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
We are one of the leading providers of offshore contract drilling services to the international oil and gas industry. We own an offshore drilling rig fleet of 74 rigs, including six rigs under construction, spanning most of the strategic, high-growth markets around the globe. Our rig fleet includes ten drillships, 13 dynamically positioned semisubmersible rigs, six moored semisubmersible rigs and 45 jackup rigs. Our fleet is the world's second largest amongst competitive rigs, our ultra-deepwater fleet is the newest in the industry, and our premium jackup fleet is the largest of any offshore drilling company.
Our customers include most of the leading national and international oil companies, in addition to many independent operators. We are among the most geographically diverse offshore drilling companies, with current operations and drilling contracts spanning approximately 20 countries on six continents in nearly every major offshore basin around the world. The markets in which we operate include the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Mexico, Brazil, the Mediterranean, the North Sea, the Middle East, West Africa, Australia and Southeast Asia.
We provide drilling services on a "day rate" contract basis. Under day rate contracts, we provide a drilling rig and rig crews and receive a fixed amount per day for drilling a well. Our customers bear substantially all of the ancillary costs of constructing the well and supporting drilling operations, as well as the economic risk relative to the success of the well. In addition, our customers may pay all or a portion of the cost of moving our equipment and personnel to and from the well site. We do not provide "turnkey" or other risk-based drilling services.
During 2009, we completed a reorganization of the corporate structure of the group of companies controlled by our predecessor, ENSCO International Incorporated ("Ensco Delaware"), pursuant to which an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary merged with Ensco Delaware, and Ensco plc became our publicly-held parent company incorporated under English law (the "redomestication").
The redomestication was accounted for as an internal reorganization of entities under common control and, therefore, Ensco Delaware's assets and liabilities were accounted for at their historical cost basis and not revalued in the transaction. We remain subject to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") reporting requirements, the mandates of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended, and the applicable corporate governance rules of the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE"), and we will continue to report our consolidated financial results in U.S. dollars and in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). We also must comply with additional reporting requirements of English law.
Basis of Presentation—U.K. Companies Act 2006 Section 435 Statement
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with GAAP, which the directors consider to be the most meaningful presentation of our results of operations and financial position. The accompanying consolidated financial statements do not constitute statutory accounts required by the U.K. Companies Act 2006, which for the year ended December 31, 2013 will be prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the U.K. and delivered to the Registrar of Companies in the U.K. following the annual general meeting of shareholders. The U.K. statutory accounts are expected to include an unqualified auditor’s report, which is not expected to contain any references to matters on which the auditors drew attention by way of emphasis without qualifying the report or any statements under Sections 498(2) or 498(3) of the U.K. Companies Act 2006.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Ensco plc and its majority-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. Certain previously reported amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.
Pervasiveness of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the related revenues and expenses and disclosures of gain and loss contingencies as of the date of the financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Foreign Currency Remeasurement and Translation
Our functional currency is the U.S. dollar. As is customary in the oil and gas industry, a majority of our revenues and expenses are denominated in U.S. dollars; however, a portion of the revenues earned and expenses incurred by certain of our subsidiaries are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar ("foreign currencies"). These transactions are remeasured in U.S. dollars based on a combination of both current and historical exchange rates. Most transaction gains and losses, including certain gains and losses on our derivative instruments, are included in other, net, in our consolidated statement of income. Certain gains and losses from the translation of foreign currency balances of our non-U.S. dollar functional currency subsidiaries are included in accumulated other comprehensive income on our consolidated balance sheet. We incurred net foreign currency exchange gains of $6.4 million, net foreign currency exchange losses of $3.5 million and net foreign currency exchange gains of $16.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
Cash Equivalents and Short-Term Investments
Highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase are considered cash equivalents. Highly liquid investments with maturities of greater than three months but less than one year at the date of purchase are classified as short-term investments.
Short-term investments, consisting of time deposits with initial maturities in excess of three months but less than one year, were included in other current assets on our consolidated balance sheets and totaled $50.0 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012. Cash flows from purchases and maturities of short-term investments were classified as investing activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011.
Property and Equipment
All costs incurred in connection with the acquisition, construction, major enhancement and improvement of assets are capitalized, including allocations of interest incurred during periods that our drilling rigs are under construction or undergoing major enhancements and improvements. Repair and maintenance costs are charged to contract drilling expense in the period in which they occur. Upon sale or retirement of assets, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the balance sheet, and the resulting gain or loss is included in contract drilling expense, unless reclassified to discontinued operations.
Our property and equipment is depreciated on a straight-line basis, after allowing for salvage values, over the estimated useful lives of our assets. Drilling rigs and related equipment are depreciated over estimated useful lives ranging from four to 35 years. Buildings and improvements are depreciated over estimated useful lives ranging from two to 30 years. Other equipment, including computer and communications hardware and software costs, is depreciated over estimated useful lives ranging from two to six years.
We evaluate the carrying value of our property and equipment for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of such assets may not be recoverable. For property and equipment used in our operations, recoverability generally is determined by comparing the carrying value of an asset to the expected undiscounted future cash flows of the asset. If the carrying value of an asset is not recoverable, the amount of impairment loss is measured as the difference between the carrying value of the asset and its estimated fair value. Property and equipment held for sale is recorded at the lower of net book value or net realizable value.
If the global economy were to deteriorate and/or the offshore drilling industry were to incur a significant prolonged downturn, it is reasonably possible that impairment charges may occur with respect to specific individual rigs, groups of rigs, such as a specific type of drilling rig, or rigs in a certain geographic location.
Our business consists of three operating segments: (1) Floaters, which includes our drillships and semisubmersible rigs, (2) Jackups and (3) Other, which consists of management services on rigs owned by third-parties. Our two reportable segments, Floaters and Jackups, provide one service, contract drilling.
We test goodwill for impairment on an annual basis as of December 31 of each year or when events or changes in circumstances indicate that a potential impairment exists. When testing goodwill for impairment, we perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount.
If we conclude that the fair value of one or both of our reporting units has more-likely-than-not declined below its carrying amount after qualitatively assessing existing facts and circumstances, we perform a quantitative assessment whereby we estimate the fair value of each reporting unit. In most instances, our calculation of the fair value of our reporting units is based on estimates of future discounted cash flows to be generated by our drilling rigs in the reporting unit.
Based on a qualitative assessment performed as of December 31, 2013, we concluded it was more-likely-than-not that the fair value of our reporting units exceeded their carrying amount, and there was no impairment of goodwill. However, if the market value of our shares declines for a prolonged period, and if management's judgments and assumptions regarding future industry conditions and operations diminish, it is reasonably possible that our expectations of future cash flows may decline and ultimately result in a goodwill impairment for our Floaters reporting unit. See "Note 9 - Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets and Liabilities" for additional information on our goodwill.
Operating Revenues and Expenses
Substantially all of our drilling contracts ("contracts") are performed on a day rate basis, and the terms of such contracts are typically for a specific period of time or the period of time required to complete a specific task, such as drill a well. Contract revenues and expenses are recognized on a per day basis, as the work is performed. Day rate revenues are typically earned, and contract drilling expense is typically incurred, on a uniform basis over the terms of our contracts.
In connection with some contracts, we receive lump-sum fees or similar compensation for the mobilization of equipment and personnel prior to the commencement of drilling services or the demobilization of equipment and personnel upon contract completion. Fees received for the mobilization or demobilization of equipment and personnel are included in operating revenues. The costs incurred in connection with the mobilization and demobilization of equipment and personnel are included in contract drilling expense.
Mobilization fees received and costs incurred prior to commencement of drilling operations are deferred and recognized on a straight-line basis over the period that the related drilling services are performed. Demobilization fees and related costs are recognized as incurred upon contract completion. Costs associated with the mobilization of equipment and personnel to more promising market areas without contracts are expensed as incurred.
Deferred mobilization costs were included in other current assets and other assets, net, on our consolidated balance sheets and totaled $66.6 million and $54.5 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Deferred mobilization revenue was included in accrued liabilities and other, and other liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets and totaled $76.8 million and $52.6 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
In connection with some contracts, we receive up-front lump-sum fees or similar compensation for capital improvements to our drilling rigs. Such compensation is deferred and recognized as revenue over the period that the related drilling services are performed. The cost of such capital improvements is capitalized and depreciated over the useful life of the asset. Deferred revenue associated with capital improvements was included in accrued liabilities and other, and other liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets and totaled $273.6 million and $301.9 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
We must obtain certifications from various regulatory bodies in order to operate our drilling rigs and must maintain such certifications through periodic inspections and surveys. The costs incurred in connection with maintaining such certifications, including inspections, tests, surveys and drydock, as well as remedial structural work and other compliance costs, are deferred and amortized over the corresponding certification periods. Deferred regulatory certification and compliance costs were included in other current assets and other assets, net, on our consolidated balance sheets and totaled $18.3 million and $14.4 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
In certain countries in which we operate, taxes such as sales, use, value-added, gross receipts and excise may be assessed by the local government on our revenues. We generally record our tax-assessed revenue transactions on a net basis in our consolidated statement of income.
We use derivatives to reduce our exposure to various market risks, primarily foreign currency exchange rate risk. See "Note 6 - Derivative Instruments" for additional information on how and why we use derivatives.
All derivatives are recorded on our consolidated balance sheet at fair value. Derivatives subject to legally enforceable master netting agreements are not offset on our consolidated balance sheet. Accounting for the gains and losses resulting from changes in the fair value of derivatives depends on the use of the derivative and whether it qualifies for hedge accounting. Derivatives qualify for hedge accounting when they are formally designated as hedges and are effective in reducing the risk exposure that they are designated to hedge. Our assessment of hedge effectiveness is formally documented at hedge inception, and we review hedge effectiveness and measure any ineffectiveness throughout the designated hedge period on at least a quarterly basis.
Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated as hedges of the variability in expected future cash flows associated with existing recognized assets or liabilities or forecasted transactions ("cash flow hedges") are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income ("AOCI"). Amounts recorded in AOCI associated with cash flow hedges are subsequently reclassified into contract drilling, depreciation or interest expense as earnings are affected by the underlying hedged forecasted transactions.
Gains and losses on a cash flow hedge, or a portion of a cash flow hedge, that no longer qualifies as effective due to an unanticipated change in the forecasted transaction are recognized currently in earnings and included in other, net, in our consolidated statement of income based on the change in the fair value of the derivative. When a forecasted transaction is no longer probable of occurring, gains and losses on the derivative previously recorded in AOCI are reclassified currently into earnings and included in other, net, in our consolidated statement of income.
We occasionally enter into derivatives that hedge the fair value of recognized assets or liabilities, but do not designate such derivatives as hedges or the derivatives otherwise do not qualify for hedge accounting. In these situations, there generally is a natural hedging relationship where changes in the fair value of the derivatives offset changes in the fair value of the underlying hedged items. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives are recognized currently in earnings in other, net, in our consolidated statement of income.
Derivatives with asset fair values are reported in other current assets or other assets, net, on our consolidated balance sheet depending on maturity date. Derivatives with liability fair values are reported in accrued liabilities and other, or other liabilities on our consolidated balance sheet depending on maturity date.
We conduct operations and earn income in numerous countries. Current income taxes are recognized for the amount of taxes payable or refundable based on the laws and income tax rates in the taxing jurisdictions in which operations are conducted and income is earned.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the anticipated future tax effects of temporary differences between the financial statement basis and the tax basis of our assets and liabilities using the enacted tax rates in effect at year-end. A valuation allowance for deferred tax assets is recorded when it is more-likely-than-not that the benefit from the deferred tax asset will not be realized. We do not offset deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities attributable to different tax paying jurisdictions.
We operate in certain jurisdictions where tax laws relating to the offshore drilling industry are not well developed and change frequently. Furthermore, we may enter into transactions with affiliates or employ other tax planning strategies that generally are subject to complex tax regulations. As a result of the foregoing, the tax liabilities and assets we recognize in our financial statements may differ from the tax positions taken, or expected to be taken, in our tax returns. Our tax positions are evaluated for recognition using a more-likely-than-not threshold, and those tax positions requiring recognition are measured as the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon effective settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. Interest and penalties relating to income taxes are included in current income tax expense in our consolidated statement of income.
Our drilling rigs frequently move from one taxing jurisdiction to another based on where they are contracted to perform drilling services. The movement of drilling rigs among taxing jurisdictions may involve a transfer of drilling rig ownership among our subsidiaries (“intercompany rig sale”). The pre-tax profit resulting from an intercompany rig sale is eliminated from our consolidated financial statements and the carrying value of a rig sold in an intercompany transaction remains at historical net depreciated cost prior to the transaction. Our consolidated financial statements do not reflect the asset disposition transaction of the selling subsidiary or the asset acquisition transaction of the acquiring subsidiary. Income taxes resulting from an intercompany rig sale, as well as the tax effect of any reversing temporary differences resulting from the sale, are deferred and amortized on a straight-line basis over the remaining useful life of the rig.
In some instances, we may determine that certain temporary differences will not result in a taxable or deductible amount in future years, as it is more-likely-than-not we will commence operations and depart from a given taxing jurisdiction without such temporary differences being recovered or settled. Under these circumstances, no future tax consequences are expected and no deferred taxes are recognized in connection with such operations. We evaluate these determinations on a periodic basis and, in the event our expectations relative to future tax consequences change, the applicable deferred taxes are recognized or derecognized.
We do not provide deferred taxes on the undistributed earnings of certain subsidiaries because our policy and intention is to reinvest such earnings indefinitely. See "Note 10 - Income Taxes" for additional information on our deferred taxes, unrecognized tax benefits, intercompany transfers of drilling rigs and undistributed earnings.
We sponsor share-based compensation plans that provide equity compensation to our key employees, officers and non-employee directors. Share-based compensation cost is measured at fair value on the date of grant and recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period (usually the vesting period). The amount of compensation cost recognized in our consolidated statement of income is based on the awards ultimately expected to vest and, therefore, reduced for estimated forfeitures. All changes in estimated forfeitures are based on historical experience and are recognized as a cumulative adjustment to compensation cost in the period in which they occur. See "Note 8 - Benefit Plans" for additional information on our share-based compensation.
Fair Value Measurements
We measure certain of our assets and liabilities based on a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy assigns the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities ("Level 1") and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs ("Level 3"). Level 2 measurements represent inputs that are observable for similar assets or liabilities, either directly or indirectly, other than quoted prices included within Level 1. See "Note 3 - Fair Value Measurements" for additional information on the fair value measurement of certain of our assets and liabilities.
Earnings Per Share
We compute basic and diluted earnings per share ("EPS") in accordance with the two-class method. Net income attributable to Ensco used in our computations of basic and diluted EPS is adjusted to exclude net income allocated to non-vested shares granted to our employees and non-employee directors. Weighted-average shares outstanding used in our computation of diluted EPS is calculated using the treasury stock method and excludes non-vested shares.
The following table is a reconciliation of net income attributable to Ensco shares used in our basic and diluted EPS computations for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2013 (in millions):
Net income attributable to Ensco
Net income allocated to non-vested share awards
Net income attributable to Ensco shares
The following table is a reconciliation of the weighted-average shares used in our basic and diluted earnings per share computations for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2013 (in millions):
Weighted-average shares - basic
Potentially dilutive shares
Weighted-average shares - diluted
Antidilutive share options totaling 300,000 for the year ended December 31, 2013 and 400,000 for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011 were excluded from the computation of diluted EPS.
Third parties hold a noncontrolling ownership interest in certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries. Noncontrolling interests are classified as equity on our consolidated balance sheet and net income attributable to noncontrolling interests is presented separately in our consolidated statement of income.
Income from continuing operations attributable to Ensco for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2013 was as follows (in millions):
Income from continuing operations
Income from continuing operations attributable to noncontrolling interests
Income from continuing operations attributable to Ensco
Loss from discontinued operations, net, for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2013 was attributable to Ensco.