NOTE 1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Nature of Operations and Basis of Presentation
The Company is principally engaged in the production, marketing and sales of consumer products through mass retail outlets, e-commerce channels, distributors and medical supply providers. The consolidated financial statements include the statements of the Company and its wholly owned and controlled subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions and accounts were eliminated in consolidation. Certain prior year reclassifications were made in the consolidated financial statements and related notes to the consolidated financial statements to conform to the current year presentation.
As discussed more fully under Note 2 Discontinued Operations, the Company's Venezuela affiliate, Corporación Clorox de Venezuela S.A. (Clorox Venezuela), a component of the International reportable segment, discontinued its operations effective September 22, 2014. Since this exit occurred subsequent to the filing of the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended June 30, 2014, the Company has reclassified the financial results of Clorox Venezuela as a discontinued operation in the consolidated financial statements for all periods presented herein.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of these consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts and related disclosures. Specific areas requiring the application of management's estimates and judgments include assumptions pertaining to accruals for consumer and trade-promotion programs, stock-based compensation costs, pension and post-employment benefit costs, future cash flows associated with impairment testing of goodwill and other long-lived assets, the credit worthiness of customers, uncertain tax positions, tax valuation allowances and legal, environmental and insurance matters. Actual results could materially differ from estimates and assumptions made.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued an update to current accounting standards, which establishes a single, comprehensive revenue recognition model for all contracts with customers, and will supersede most current revenue recognition guidance. It requires entities to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The amendments are effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2018. Early adoption is not permitted. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of the adoption of these requirements on its consolidated financial statements.
In April 2014, the FASB issued an update to current accounting standards, which will change the criteria for reporting discontinued operations. The amendments will also require new disclosures about discontinued operations and disposals of components of an entity that do not qualify for discontinued operations reporting. The amendments are effective for the Company for new disposals (or classifications as held for sale) of components of the Company, should they occur, beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2016. Early adoption is permitted for disposals (or classifications as held for sale) that have not been previously reported. The Company does not expect the adoption of the new standard to materially impact its reporting of Clorox Venezuela.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash equivalents consist of highly liquid instruments, time deposits and money market funds with an initial maturity at purchase of three months or less. The fair value of cash and cash equivalents approximates the carrying amount.
The Company's cash position includes amounts held by foreign subsidiaries and, as a result, the repatriation of certain cash balances from some of the Company's foreign subsidiaries could result in additional tax costs. However, these cash balances are generally available without legal restriction to fund local business operations. In addition, a portion of the Company's cash balance is held in U.S. dollars by foreign subsidiaries, whose functional currency is their local currency. Such U.S. dollar balances are reported on the foreign subsidiaries' books, in their functional currency, with the impact from foreign currency exchange rate differences recorded in other income, net. The Company's cash holdings were as follows as of June 30:
|U.S. dollar balances held by U.S. dollar functional currency subsidiaries and at parent||$||180||$||130|
|Non-U.S. dollar balances held by non-U.S. dollar functional currency subsidiaries||132||115|
|U.S. dollar balances held by non-U.S. dollar functional currency subsidiaries||12||36|
|Non-U.S. dollar balances held by U.S. dollar functional currency subsidiaries||5||18|
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. When necessary, the Company provides allowances to adjust the carrying value of its inventory to the lower of cost or market, including any costs to sell or dispose. Appropriate consideration is given to obsolescence, excessive inventory levels, product deterioration and other factors in evaluating net realizable value for the purposes of determining the lower of cost or market.
Property, Plant and Equipment and Finite-Lived Intangible Assets
Property, plant and equipment and finite-lived intangible assets are stated at cost. Depreciation and amortization expense are calculated by the straight-line method using the estimated useful lives or lives determined by lease contracts of the related assets. The table below provides estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment by asset classification.
|Buildings and leasehold improvements||10 - 40 years|
|Land improvements||10 - 30 years|
|Machinery and equipment||3 - 15 years|
|Computer equipment||3 - 5 years|
|Capitalized software costs||3 - 7 years|
Property, plant and equipment and finite-lived intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances occur that indicate that the carrying amount of an asset (or asset group) may not be fully recoverable. The risk of impairment is initially assessed based on an estimate of the undiscounted cash flows at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows exist. Impairment occurs when the book value of the asset exceeds the estimated future undiscounted cash flows generated by the asset and the impairment is viewed as other than temporary. When an impairment is indicated, an impairment charge is recorded for the difference between the book value of the asset and its estimated fair market value. Depending on the asset, estimated fair market value may be determined either by use of a discounted cash flow model or by reference to estimated selling values of assets in similar condition.
Capitalization of Software Costs
The Company capitalizes certain significant costs incurred in the acquisition and development of software for internal use, including the costs of the software, materials, consultants, interest and payroll and payroll-related costs for employees during the application development stage. Costs incurred prior to the application development stage, costs incurred once the application is substantially complete and ready for its intended use and other costs not qualifying for capitalization, including training and maintenance costs, are charged to expense. Capitalized software amortization expense was $22, $21 and $18, in fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
Impairment Review of Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
The Company tests its goodwill, trademarks with indefinite lives and other indefinite-lived intangible assets annually for impairment in the fiscal fourth quarter unless there are indications during a different interim period that these assets may have become impaired. With respect to goodwill, the Company performs either a qualitative or quantitative evaluation for each of its reporting units. Factors considered in the qualitative test include maturity and stability of the reporting unit, magnitude of excess fair value over book value from past year's impairment testing, other reporting unit specific operating results as well as new events and circumstances impacting the operations at the reporting unit level. If the result of a qualitative test indicates a potential for impairment of a reporting unit, a quantitative test is performed. The quantitative test is a two-step process. In the first step, the Company compares the estimated fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value. If the estimated fair value of any reporting unit is less than its carrying value, the Company performs a second step to determine the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit's goodwill exceeds its implied fair value, an impairment charge is recorded for the difference between the carrying amount and the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill. For trademarks and other intangible assets with indefinite lives, the Company performs a quantitative analysis to test for impairment and compares the estimated fair value of an asset to its carrying amount. If the carrying amount of such asset exceeds its estimated fair value, an impairment charge is recorded for the difference between the carrying amount and the estimated fair value. The Company's estimates of fair value are based primarily on a discounted cash flow or income approach that requires significant management judgment with respect to future sales volumes, revenue and expense growth rates, changes in working capital, foreign exchange rates, currency devaluation, inflation and a perpetuity growth rate.
The Company grants various nonqualified stock-based compensation awards to eligible employees, including stock options and performance units.
For stock options, the Company estimates the fair value of each award on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes valuation model, which requires management to make estimates regarding expected option life, stock price volatility and other assumptions. Groups of employees that have similar historical exercise behavior are considered separately for valuation purposes. The Company estimates stock option forfeitures based on historical data for each employee grouping. The total number of stock options expected to vest is adjusted by actual and estimated forfeitures. Changes to the actual and estimated forfeitures will result in a cumulative catch-up adjustment in the period of change. Compensation expense is recorded by amortizing the grant date fair values on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, adjusted for estimated forfeitures.
The Company's performance unit grants provide for the issuance of common stock to certain managerial staff and executive management if the Company achieves specified performance targets. The performance period is three years and the payout determination is made at the end of the three-year performance period. The fair value of each grant issued is estimated on the date of grant based on the current market price of the stock. The total amount of compensation expense recognized reflects estimated forfeiture rates and the initial assumption that performance goals will be achieved. Compensation expense is adjusted based on management's assessment of the probability that performance goals will be achieved. If such goals are not met or it is determined that achievement of performance goals is not probable, previously recognized compensation expense is trued up in the current period to reflect the expected payout level. If it is determined that the performance goals will be exceeded, additional compensation expense is recognized, subject to a cap of 150% of target.
Cash flows resulting from tax deductions in excess of the cumulative compensation cost recognized for stock-based payment arrangements (excess tax benefits) are classified as financing cash inflows.
The Company accounts for its defined benefit retirement income and retirement health care plans using actuarial methods. These methods use an attribution approach that generally spreads plan events over the service lives or expected lifetime (for frozen plans) of plan participants. Examples of plan events are plan amendments and changes in actuarial assumptions such as the expected return on plan assets, discount rate, rate of compensation increase and certain employee-related factors, such as retirement age and mortality. The principle underlying the attribution approach is that employees render service over their employment period on a relatively smooth basis and, therefore, the statement of earnings effects of retirement income and retirement health care plans are recognized in the same pattern.
One of the principal assumptions used in the net periodic benefit cost calculation is the expected return on plan assets. The required use of an expected return on plan assets may result in recognized pension expense or income that differs from the actual returns of those plan assets in any given year. Over time, however, the goal is for the expected long-term returns to approximate the actual returns and, therefore, the expectation is that the pattern of income and expense recognition should closely match the pattern of the services provided by the participants. The Company uses a market-related value method for calculating plan assets for purposes of determining the amortization of actuarial gains and losses. This method employs an asset smoothing approach. The differences between actual and expected returns are recognized in the net periodic benefit cost calculation over the average remaining service period or expected lifetime (for frozen plans) of the plan participants using the corridor approach. Under this approach, only actuarial gains (losses) that exceed 5% of the greater of the projected benefit obligation or the market-related value of assets are amortized to pension expense by the Company. In developing its expected return on plan assets, the Company considers the long-term actual returns relative to the mix of investments that comprise its plan assets and also develops estimates of future investment returns by considering external sources.
The Company recognizes an actuarial-based obligation at the onset of disability for certain benefits provided to individuals after employment, but before retirement, that include medical, dental, vision, life and other benefits.
The Company is involved in certain environmental remediation and ongoing compliance activities. Accruals for environmental matters are recorded on a site-by-site basis when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the liability can be reasonably estimated. The Company's accruals reflect the anticipated participation of other potentially responsible parties in those instances where it is probable that such parties are legally responsible and financially capable of paying their respective shares of the relevant costs. These accruals are adjusted periodically as assessment and remediation efforts progress or as additional technical or legal information becomes available. Actual costs to be incurred at identified sites in future periods may vary from the estimates, given the inherent uncertainties in evaluating environmental exposures. The aggregate accrual for environmental matters is included in other liabilities in the Company's consolidated balance sheets on an undiscounted basis due to uncertainty regarding the timing of future payments.
Sales are recognized as revenue when the risk of loss and title pass to the customer and when all of the following have occurred: a firm sales arrangement exists, pricing is fixed or determinable and collection is reasonably assured. Sales are recorded net of allowances for returns, trade promotions, coupons and other discounts. The Company routinely commits to one-time or ongoing trade-promotion programs with customers and consumer coupon programs that require the Company to estimate and accrue the expected costs of such programs. Programs include shelf price reductions, end-of-aisle or in-store displays of the Company's products and graphics and other trade-promotion activities conducted by the customer. Coupons are recognized as a liability when distributed based upon expected consumer redemptions. The Company maintains liabilities related to these programs for the estimated expenses incurred, but not paid, at the end of each period. Trade-promotion and coupon redemption costs are recorded as a reduction of sales. The Company provides an allowance for doubtful accounts based on its historical experience and ongoing assessment of its customers' credit risk. Receivables were presented net of an allowance for doubtful accounts of $3 and $5 as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The Company's provision for doubtful accounts was $0, $0 and $3 in fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
Receivables, net, included non-customer receivables of $15 and $13 as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
Cost of Products Sold
Cost of products sold represents the costs directly related to the manufacture and distribution of the Company's products and primarily includes raw materials, packaging, contract packer fees, shipping and handling, warehousing, package design, depreciation, amortization, direct and indirect labor and operating costs for the Company's manufacturing and distribution facilities including salary, benefit costs and incentive compensation, and royalties and amortization related to the Company's Glad Venture Agreement (see Note 11 Other Liabilities).
Costs associated with developing and designing new packaging are expensed as incurred and include design, artwork, films and labeling. Expenses for fiscal years ended June 30, 2014, 2013 and 2012 were $12, $10 and $10, respectively, all of which were reflected in cost of products sold or discontinued operations, as appropriate, in the consolidated statements of earnings.
Selling and Administrative Expenses
Selling and administrative expenses represent costs incurred by the Company in generating revenues and managing the business and include market research, commissions and certain administrative expenses. Administrative expenses include salary, benefits, incentive compensation, professional fees and services, software and licensing fees and other operating costs associated with the Company's non-manufacturing, non-research and development staff, facilities and equipment.
Advertising and Research and Development Costs
The Company expenses advertising and research and development costs in the period incurred.
The Company uses the asset and liability method to account for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the anticipated future tax consequences attributable to differences between financial statement amounts and their respective tax bases. Management reviews the Company's deferred tax assets to determine whether their value can be realized based upon available evidence. A valuation allowance is established when management believes that it is more likely than not that some portion of its deferred tax assets will not be realized. Changes in valuation allowances from period to period are included in the Company's tax provision in the period of change. In addition to valuation allowances, the Company provides for uncertain tax positions when such tax positions do not meet certain recognition thresholds or measurement standards. Amounts for uncertain tax positions are adjusted in quarters when new information becomes available or when positions are effectively settled.
U.S. income tax expense and foreign withholding taxes are provided on unremitted foreign earnings that are not indefinitely reinvested at the time the earnings are generated. Where foreign earnings are indefinitely reinvested, no provision for U.S. income or foreign withholding taxes is made. When circumstances change and the Company determines that some or all of the undistributed earnings will be remitted in the foreseeable future, the Company accrues an expense in the current period for U.S. income taxes and foreign withholding taxes attributable to the anticipated remittance.
Foreign Currency Transactions and Translation
Local currencies are the functional currencies for substantially all of the Company's foreign operations. When the transactional currency is different than the functional currency, transaction gains and losses are included as a component of other income, net. In addition, certain assets and liabilities denominated in currencies different than a foreign subsidiary's functional currency are reported on the subsidiary's books in its functional currency, with the impact from exchange rate differences recorded in other income, net. Except for Clorox Venezuela as discussed below and in Note 2 Discontinued Operations, assets and liabilities of foreign operations are translated into U.S. dollars using the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, while income and expenses are translated at the average monthly exchange rates during the year.
Gains and losses on foreign currency translations are reported as a component of other comprehensive income. Deferred taxes are not provided on cumulative translation adjustments where the Company expects earnings of a foreign subsidiary to be indefinitely reinvested. The income tax effect of currency translation adjustments related to foreign subsidiaries and joint ventures for which earnings are not considered indefinitely reinvested is recorded as a component of deferred taxes with an offset to other comprehensive income.
Due to a sustained inflationary environment, the financial statements of Clorox Venezuela are consolidated under the rules governing the preparation of financial statements in a highly inflationary economy. As such, Clorox Venezuela's non-U.S. dollar (non-USD) denominated monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured into U.S. dollars (USD) each reporting period with the resulting gains and losses reflected in (losses) earnings from discontinued operations, net.
The Company's use of derivative instruments, principally swaps, futures and forward contracts, is limited to non-trading purposes and is designed to partially manage exposure to changes in commodity prices, interest rates and foreign currencies. The Company's contracts are hedges for transactions with notional amounts and periods consistent with the related exposures and do not constitute investments independent of these exposures.
Most commodity, interest rate and foreign exchange derivative contracts are designated as cash flow hedges of certain forecasted raw material purchases, interest payments and finished goods inventory purchases, based on certain hedge criteria. The criteria used to determine if hedge accounting treatment is appropriate are: (a) whether the designation of the hedge is to an underlying exposure and (b) whether there is sufficient correlation between the value of the derivative instrument and the underlying obligation. The changes in the fair value of derivatives are recorded as either assets or liabilities in the balance sheet with an offset to net earnings or other comprehensive income depending on whether, for accounting purposes, the derivative is designated and qualifies as a hedge. The Company de-designates cash flow hedge relationships when it determines that the hedge relationships are no longer highly effective or that the forecasted transaction is no longer probable. Upon de-designation of a hedge, the portion of gains or losses on the derivative instrument that was previously accumulated in other comprehensive income remains in accumulated other comprehensive income until the forecasted transaction is recognized in net earnings, or is recognized in net earnings immediately if the forecasted transaction is no longer probable. From time to time, the Company may have contracts not designated as hedges for accounting purposes, for which it recognizes changes in the fair value in other income, net. Cash flows from hedging activities are classified as operating activities in the consolidated statements of cash flows.
The Company uses different methodologies, when necessary, to estimate the fair value of its derivative contracts. The estimated fair values of the majority of the Company's contracts are based on quoted market prices, traded exchange market prices, or broker price quotations, and represent the estimated amounts that the Company would pay or receive to terminate the contracts.
NOTE 2. DISCONTINUED OPERATIONS
On September 22, 2014, Clorox Venezuela announced that it was discontinuing its operations, effective immediately, and seeking to sell its assets. Since fiscal year 2012, Clorox Venezuela was required to sell more than two thirds of its products at prices frozen by the Venezuelan government. During this same period, Clorox Venezuela experienced successive years of hyperinflation resulting in significant sustained increases in its input costs, including packaging, raw materials, transportation and wages. As a result, Clorox Venezuela had been selling its products at a loss, resulting in ongoing operating losses. Clorox Venezuela repeatedly met with government authorities in an effort to help them understand the rapidly declining state of the business, including the need for immediate, significant and ongoing price increases and other critical remedial actions to address these adverse impacts. Based on the Venezuelan government's representations, Clorox Venezuela had expected significant price increases would be forthcoming much earlier; however, the price increases subsequently approved were insufficient and would have caused Clorox Venezuela to continue operating at a significant loss into the foreseeable future. As such, Clorox Venezuela was no longer financially viable and was forced to discontinue its operations.
On September 26, 2014, the Company reported that Venezuelan Vice President Jorge Arreaza announced, with endorsement by President Nicolás Maduro, that the Venezuelan government had occupied the Santa Lucía and Guacara production facilities of Clorox Venezuela. On November 6, 2014 the Company reported that the Venezuelan government had published a resolution granting a government-sponsored Special Administrative Board full authority to restart and operate the business of Clorox Venezuela, thereby reaffirming the government's expropriation of Clorox Venezuela's assets. Further, President Nicolás Maduro announced the government's intention to facilitate the resumed production of bleach and other cleaning products at Clorox Venezuela plants. He also announced his approval of a financial credit to invest in raw materials and production at the plants. These actions by the Venezuelan government were taken without the consent or involvement of Clorox Venezuela, its parent Clorox Spain S.L. (Clorox Spain) or any of their affiliates. Clorox Venezuela, Clorox Spain and their affiliates reserved their rights under all applicable laws and treaties.
The following table provides summary net sales results for Clorox Venezuela and a breakdown of losses from discontinued operations for the years ended June 30:
Net sales for Clorox Venezuela
Operating (losses) earnings from Clorox Venezuela before income taxes
|Income tax benefit (expense) attributable to Clorox Venezuela||6||-||(5||)|
Operating (losses) earnings from Clorox Venezuela, net of tax
Losses from other discontinued operations, net of tax
(Losses) earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax
As of June 30, 2014, using the SICAD I rate of 10.6, the Venezuela business had total assets of $68 including cash and cash equivalents of $5, a long-term value added tax (VAT) receivable from the Venezuelan government of $9, inventories of $11, net property, plant and equipment of $16, and intangible assets excluding goodwill of $6. Goodwill for Venezuela is aggregated and assessed for impairment at the Latin America reporting unit level, which is a component of the Company's International segment. Based on the results of the annual impairment test performed in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2014, the fair value of the Latin America reporting unit exceeded its recorded value by more than 40%.
NOTE 3. BUSINESSES ACQUIRED
In December 2011, the Company acquired HealthLink, Aplicare, Inc. and Soy Vay Enterprises, Inc., including each business' workforce, for purchase prices aggregating $97, funded through commercial paper borrowings. The cash paid of $93 represents the aggregate purchase prices less cash acquired. Results for HealthLink and Aplicare, Inc., providers of infection control products for the health care industry, are reflected in the Cleaning reportable segment. Results for Soy Vay Enterprises, Inc., a California-based operation that provides the Company a presence in the market for Asian sauces, are reflected in the Lifestyle reportable segment.
NOTE 4. INVENTORIES, NET
Inventories, net, consisted of the following as of June 30:
|Raw materials and packaging||113||121|
|Work in process||2||3|
|Allowances for obsolescence||(14||)||(11||)|
The last-in, first-out (LIFO) method was used to value approximately 34% and 37% of inventories as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The carrying values for all other inventories, including inventories of all international businesses, are determined on the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. The effect on earnings of the liquidation of LIFO layers was a benefit of $2, $3 and $2 for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
The Company had inventory consigned to others of $4 and $2 as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
During fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012, the Company's inventory obsolescence expense was $13, $12 and $13, respectively.
NOTE 5. OTHER CURRENT ASSETS
Other current assets consisted of the following as of June 30:
|Deferred tax assets||$||81||$||87|
As of June 30, 2014 and 2013, Other in the table above included $9 and $13 of restricted cash, respectively. As of June 30, 2014 and 2013, restricted cash of $5 and $10, respectively, was held by a foreign subsidiary as a prepayment received for intercompany services. Subsequent to June 30, 2014, this balance is no longer restricted as all services have been performed. Additionally, as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, the Company had restricted cash of $3 and $3, respectively, held in escrow related to fiscal year 2012 acquisitions.
NOTE 6. PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT, NET
The components of property, plant and equipment, net, consisted of the following as of June 30:
|Machinery and equipment||$||1,593||$||1,590|
|Capitalized software costs||374||362|
|Land and improvements||122||119|
|Construction in progress||79||96|
|Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization||(1,776||)||(1,711||)|
Depreciation and amortization expense related to property, plant and equipment, net, was $161, $162 and $158 in fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
NOTE 7. GOODWILL, TRADEMARKS AND OTHER INTANGIBLE ASSETS
Changes in the carrying amount of goodwill, trademarks and other intangible assets for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, were as follows:
|Balance June 30, 2012||$||323||$||244||$||85||$||460||$||1,112|
|Translation adjustments and other||-||-||-||(7||)||(7||)|
|Balance June 30, 2013||$||323||$||244||$||85||$||453||$||1,105|
|Translation adjustments and other||-||-||-||(4||)||(4||)|
|Balance June 30, 2014||$||323||$||244||$||85||$||449||$||1,101|
|Trademarks||Other intangible assets|
|Not subject to
|Balance June 30, 2012||$||19||$||537||$||556||$||23||$||63||$||86|
|Translation adjustments and other||-||-||-||5||(2||)||3|
|Balance June 30, 2013||$||16||$||537||$||553||$||19||$||55||$||74|
|Acquisitions and other additions||-||-||-||-||5||5|
|Translation adjustments and other||(1||)||-||(1||)||-||-||-|
|Balance June 30, 2014||$||14||$||533||$||547||$||10||$||54||$||64|
Intangible assets subject to amortization were net of total accumulated amortization of $291 and $275 as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, respectively, of which $22 and $21, respectively, related to trademarks. Total accumulated amortization included $142 and $136 as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, respectively, related to intangible assets subject to amortization that were fully amortized, of which $13 and $13, respectively, related to trademarks. Estimated amortization expense for these intangible assets is $9, $5, $5, $4 and $3 for fiscal years 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019, respectively.
In fiscal year 2014, the Company entered into an exclusivity agreement with a manufacturer. In connection with the agreement, the Company recorded an Other Intangible Asset valued at $4 that will be amortized over the 7-year term of the agreement. The agreement may be renewed for an additional 3 years at no cost upon mutual consent.
As a result of the effective devaluation of the Venezuelan currency in the third quarter of fiscal year 2014, the Company assessed whether recorded values of intangible assets attributable to the Venezuela subsidiary and goodwill of the reporting unit which included Venezuela were impaired. As a result of its assessment, the Company identified indications of impairment and recorded noncash tax deductible impairment charges on trademark values totaling $4 , which is reflected in the International reportable segment, Of this amount $3 is related to continuing operations and is reflected in other income, net and $1 is related to trademarks held on the books of Clorox Venezuela and is reflected in earnings from discontinued operations, net. The Company used an income approach, the relief-from-royalty method, to estimate the fair value of the trademarks, and as such, the fair value measurement was classified as Level 3. For a further discussion of Clorox Venezuela's intangible and other asset balances, refer to Note 2 Discontinued Operations.
During the fourth quarter of fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012, the Company completed its annual impairment tests of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets and no instances of impairment were identified.
NOTE 8. ACCRUED LIABILITIES
Accrued liabilities consisted of the following as of June 30:
|Trade and sales promotion||$||113||$||116|
|Compensation and employee benefit costs||102||152|
NOTE 9. DEBT
Notes and loans payable, which mature in less than one year, included the following as of June 30:
The weighted average interest rates incurred on average outstanding notes and loans payable during the fiscal years ended June 30, 2014, 2013 and 2012, including fees associated with the Company's undrawn revolving credit facility, were 0.97%, 1.68% and 0.85%, respectively. The weighted average effective interest rates on commercial paper balances as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, were 0.28% and 0.31%, respectively. The carrying value of notes and loans payable as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, approximated their fair value due to their short maturity.
Long-term debt, carried at face value net of unamortized discounts or premiums, included the following as of June 30:
|Senior unsecured notes and debentures:|
|5.00%, $575 due January 2015||$||575||$||575|
|3.55%, $300 due November 2015||300||300|
|5.95%, $400 due October 2017||399||399|
|3.80%, $300 due November 2021||298||298|
|3.05%, $600 due September 2022||598||598|
|Less: Current maturities of long-term debt||(575||)||-|
The weighted average interest rates incurred on average outstanding long-term debt during the fiscal years ended June 30, 2014, 2013 and 2012, were 4.56%, 4.76% and 5.21%, respectively. The weighted average effective interest rate on long-term debt balances as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, was 4.56%.
In March 2013, $500 in senior notes with an annual fixed interest rate of 5.00% became due and were repaid. The repayment was funded in part with commercial paper borrowings and in part with a portion of the proceeds from the sale-leaseback transaction of the Company's Oakland, Calif., general office building (Note 11 Other Liabilities).
In October 2012, $350 in senior notes with an annual fixed interest rate of 5.45% became due and were repaid. The repayment was funded with a portion of the proceeds from the September 2012 issuance of $600 in senior notes with an annual fixed interest rate of 3.05%, payable semi-annually in March and September, and a maturity date of September 15, 2022. The remaining proceeds from the September 2012 issuance were used to repay commercial paper.
In November 2011, the Company issued $300 in senior notes with an annual fixed interest rate of 3.80%, payable semi-annually in May and November, and a maturity date of November 15, 2021. Proceeds from the notes were used to repay commercial paper.
The senior notes issued in September 2012 and November 2011 rank equally and ratably in right of payment with all of the Company's existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness and senior to any future subordinated unsecured indebtedness. These notes were issued under the Company's shelf registration statement filed in November 2011, which allows the Company to offer and sell an unlimited amount of its senior unsecured indebtedness from time to time and expires in November 2014.
As of June 30, 2014, the Company had interest rate forward contracts with a notional amount of $288 related to the anticipated refinancing of senior notes maturing in January 2015.
The Company's borrowing capacity under other financing arrangements as of June 30 was as follows:
|Revolving credit facility||$||1,100||$||1,100|
|Foreign credit lines||31||32|
|Other credit lines||13||13|
As of June 30, 2014, the Company had a $1.1 billion revolving credit agreement, which expires in May 2017. There were no borrowings under the agreement, and the Company believes that borrowings under the revolving credit facility are and will continue to be available for general corporate purposes. The agreement includes certain restrictive covenants and limitations, with which the Company was in compliance as of June 30, 2014.
Of the $44 of foreign and other credit lines as of June 30, 2014; $5 was outstanding and the remainder of $39 was available for borrowing. As of June 30, 2014, $7 of foreign credit lines related to Clorox Venezuela, of which $1 was outstanding.
Long-term debt maturities as of June 30, 2014, are $575, $300, $0, $400, $0 and $900 in fiscal years 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 and thereafter, respectively.
NOTE 10. FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS AND FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
Financial assets and liabilities carried at fair value in the consolidated balance sheets are required to be classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
Level 1: Quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: Observable market-based inputs or unobservable inputs that are corroborated by market data.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs reflecting the reporting entity's own assumptions.
As of June 30, 2014, the Company's financial assets and liabilities that were measured at fair value on a recurring basis during the period included derivative financial instruments, which were all classified as Level 2, and trust assets to fund certain of the Company's nonqualified deferred compensation plans, which were classified as Level 1. As of June 30, 2013, the Company's financial assets and liabilities that were measured at fair value on a recurring basis during the period included derivative financial instruments, which were all classified as Level 2.
Financial Risk Management and Derivative Instruments
The Company is exposed to certain commodity, interest rate and foreign currency risks related to its ongoing business operations and uses derivative instruments to mitigate its exposure to these risks.
Commodity Price Risk Management
The Company may use commodity exchange traded futures and over-the-counter swap contracts to fix the price of a portion of its forecasted raw material requirements. Contract maturities, which are generally no longer than 2 years, are matched to the length of the raw material purchase contracts. Commodity purchase contracts are measured at fair value using market quotations obtained from commodity derivative dealers.
As of June 30, 2014, the notional amount of commodity derivatives was $36, of which $19 related to jet fuel swaps and $17 related to soybean oil futures. As of June 30, 2013, the notional value of commodity derivatives was $51, of which $32 related to jet fuel swaps and $19 related to soybean oil futures.
Interest Rate Risk Management
The Company may enter into over-the-counter interest rate forward contracts to fix a portion of the benchmark interest rate prior to the anticipated issuance of fixed rate debt. These interest rate forward contracts generally have durations of less than twelve months. The interest rate contracts are measured at fair value using information quoted by U.S. government bond dealers. During fiscal years 2014 and 2013, the Company paid $0 and $4 to settle interest rate forward contracts, respectively, which were reflected in operating cash flows.
As of June 30, 2014 and 2013, the notional amount of interest rate forward contracts was $288 and $0, respectively. The interest rate forward contracts outstanding as of June 30, 2014, were related to the anticipated refinancing of senior notes maturing in January 2015.
Foreign Currency Risk Management
The Company may also enter into certain over-the-counter foreign currency-related derivative contracts to manage a portion of the Company's foreign exchange risk associated with the purchase of inventory and certain intercompany transactions. These foreign currency contracts generally have durations of no longer than 20 months. The foreign exchange contracts are measured at fair value using information quoted by foreign exchange dealers.
The notional amount of outstanding foreign currency forward contracts used by the Company's subsidiaries in Canada, Australia and New Zealand to hedge forecasted purchases of inventory were $54, $28 and $5, respectively, as of June 30, 2014, and $18, $22 and $4, respectively, as of June 30, 2013. There were no outstanding contracts to economically hedge foreign exchange risk associated with intercompany transactions as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
Counterparty Risk Management
The Company utilizes a variety of financial institutions as counterparties for over-the counter derivative instruments. The Company enters into agreements governing the use of over-the-counter derivative instruments and sets internal limits on the aggregate over-the-counter derivative instrument positions held with each counterparty. Certain terms of these agreements require the Company or the counterparty to post collateral when the fair value of the derivative instruments exceeds contractually defined counterparty liability position limits. Of the $17 and $3 of the derivative instruments reflected in accrued liabilities as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, respectively, $11 and $3, respectively, contained such terms. As of both June 30, 2014 and 2013, neither the Company nor any counterparty was required to post any collateral.
Certain terms of the agreements governing the Company's over-the-counter derivative instruments require the credit ratings, as assigned by Standard & Poor's and Moody's to the Company and its counterparties, to remain at a level equal to or better than the minimum of an investment grade credit rating. If the Company's credit ratings were to fall below investment grade, the counterparties to the derivative instruments could request full collateralization on derivative instruments in net liability positions. As of both June 30, 2014 and 2013, the Company and each of its counterparties had been assigned investment grade ratings with both Standard & Poor's and Moody's.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The accounting for changes in the fair value (i.e., gains or losses) of a derivative instrument depends on whether it has been designated and qualifies as an accounting hedge and, if so, on the type of hedging relationship. For those derivative instruments designated and qualifying as hedging instruments, the Company must designate the hedging instrument as a fair value hedge or a cash flow hedge. The Company designates its commodity forward and future contracts for forecasted purchases of raw materials, interest rate forward contracts for forecasted interest payments, and foreign currency forward contracts for forecasted purchases of inventory as cash flow hedges. The Company does not designate its foreign currency forward contracts for intercompany transactions as accounting hedges. During the fiscal years ended June 30, 2014, 2013 and 2012, the Company had no hedging instruments designated as fair value hedges.
Beginning in December 2013, the Company holds mutual funds and cash equivalents as part of trusts related to certain of its nonqualified deferred compensation plans. The trusts represent variable interest entities, for which the Company is considered the primary beneficiary, and therefore, trust assets are consolidated and included in other assets in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. The mutual funds are measured at fair value using quoted market prices. The Company has designated these marketable securities as trading investments. The participants in the deferred compensation plans may select among certain mutual funds in which their compensation deferrals are invested in accordance with the terms of the plans and within the confines of the trusts which hold the marketable securities.
The Company's derivative instruments designated as hedging instruments and trust assets related to certain of the Company's nonqualified deferred compensation plans were recorded at fair value in the consolidated balance sheets as of June 30 as follows:
|Level 1||Level 2||Level 1||Level 2|
|Foreign exchange derivative contracts||Other current assets||$||-||$||-||$||-||$||4|
|Commodity purchase derivative contracts||Other current assets||-||1||-||-|
|Trust assets for nonqualified deferred|
|compensation plans||Other assets||31||-||-||-|
|Commodity purchase derivative contracts||Accrued liabilities||$||-||$||1||$||-||$||3|
|Interest rate derivative contracts||Accrued liabilities||-||13||-||-|
|Foreign exchange derivative contracts||Accrued liabilities||-||3||-||-|
For derivative instruments designated and qualifying as cash flow hedges, the effective portion of gains or losses is reported as a component of other comprehensive income (OCI) and reclassified into earnings in the same period or periods during which the hedged transaction affects earnings. The estimated amount of the existing net loss in OCI as of June 30, 2014, expected to be reclassified into earnings within the next twelve months is $8. Gains and losses on derivative instruments representing either hedge ineffectiveness or hedge components excluded from the assessment of effectiveness are recognized in current earnings. During each of the fiscal years ended June 30, 2014, 2013 and 2012, hedge ineffectiveness was not significant.
The effects of derivative instruments designated as hedging instruments on OCI and the consolidated statements of earnings were as follows during the fiscal years ended June 30:
|Gains (losses) recognized in OCI||Gains (losses) reclassified from OCI
and recognized in earnings
|Commodity purchase derivative contracts||$||2||$||(1||)||$||(1||)||$||-||$||-||$||4|
|Interest rate derivative contracts||(13||)||(1||)||(39||)||(4||)||(3||)||(2||)|
|Foreign exchange derivative contracts||(3||)||3||3||4||-||2|
The gains reclassified from OCI and recognized in earnings during the fiscal years ended June 30, 2014 and 2012, for commodity purchase and foreign exchange contracts were included in cost of products sold. The losses reclassified from OCI and recognized in earnings during the fiscal years ended June 30, 2014, 2013 and 2012, for interest rate contracts were included in interest expense.
Changes in the value of the trust assets related to certain of the Company's nonqualified deferred compensation plans were $(1) for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2014, and were reflected in other income, net, in the consolidated statements of earnings.
The carrying values of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable approximate their fair values as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, due to their short maturity and nature. The estimated fair value of long-term debt, including current maturities, was $2,265 and $2,263 as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The fair value of long-term debt was determined using secondary market prices quoted by corporate bond dealers, and was classified as Level 2.
NOTE 11. OTHER LIABILITIES
Other liabilities consisted of the following as of June 30:
|Venture agreement net terminal obligation||$||290||$||284|
|Employee benefit obligations||289||270|
The Company has an agreement with The Procter & Gamble Company (P&G) for its Glad® plastic bags, wraps and containers business. The Company maintains a net terminal obligation liability, which reflects the estimated value of the contractual requirement to repurchase P&G's interest at the termination of the agreement. As of June 30, 2014 and 2013, P&G had a 20% interest in the venture. The Company pays a royalty to P&G for its interest in the profits, losses and cash flows, as contractually defined, of the Glad® business, which is included in cost of products sold.
The agreement, entered into in 2003, has a 20-year term, with a 10-year renewal option and can be terminated under certain circumstances, including at P&G's option upon a change in control of the Company or, at either party's option, upon the sale of the Glad® business by the Company. Upon termination of the agreement, the Company will purchase P&G's interest for cash at fair value as established by predetermined valuation procedures. Following termination, the Glad® business will retain the exclusive core intellectual property licenses contributed by P&G on a royalty-free basis for the licensed products marketed.
Deferred Gain on Sale-leaseback Transaction
In December 2012, the Company completed a sale-leaseback transaction under which it sold its general office building in Oakland, Calif., to an unrelated party for net proceeds of $108 and entered into a 15-year operating lease agreement with renewal options with the buyer for a portion of the building. The Company deferred recognition of the portion of the total gain on the sale that was equivalent to the present value of the lease payments and will continue to amortize such amount to earnings ratably over the lease term. As of June 30, 2014 and 2013, the long-term portion of the deferred gain of $43 and $47, respectively, was included in Other in the table above.
NOTE 12. OTHER CONTINGENCIES AND GUARANTEES
The Company is involved in certain environmental matters, including response actions at various locations. The Company had a recorded liability of $14 and $13 as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, respectively, for its share of aggregate future remediation costs related to these matters. One matter in Dickinson County, Michigan, for which the Company is jointly and severally liable, accounted for a substantial majority of the recorded liability as of both June 30, 2014 and 2013. The Company has agreed to be liable for 24.3% of the aggregate remediation and associated costs for this matter pursuant to a cost-sharing arrangement with a third party. With the assistance of environmental consultants, the Company maintains an undiscounted liability representing its current best estimate of its share of the capital expenditures, maintenance and other costs that may be incurred over an estimated 30-year remediation period. Currently, the Company cannot accurately predict the timing of future payments that may be made under this obligation. In addition, the Company's estimated loss exposure is sensitive to a variety of uncertain factors, including the efficacy of remediation efforts, changes in remediation requirements and the future availability of alternative clean-up technologies. Although it is reasonably possible that the Company's exposure may exceed the amount recorded, any amount of such additional exposures, or range of exposures, is not estimable at this time.
In October 2012, a Brazilian appellate court issued an adverse decision in a lawsuit pending in Brazil against the Company and one of its wholly owned subsidiaries, The Glad Products Company (Glad). The lawsuit was initially filed in a Brazilian lower court in 2002 by two Brazilian companies and one Uruguayan company (collectively, Petroplus) related to joint venture agreements for the distribution of STP auto-care products in Brazil with three companies that became subsidiaries of the Company as a result of the Company's merger with First Brands Corporation in January 1999 (collectively, Clorox Subsidiaries). The pending lawsuit seeks indemnification for damages and losses for alleged breaches of the joint venture agreements and abuse of economic power by the Company and Glad. Petroplus had previously unsuccessfully raised the same claims and sought damages from the Company and the Clorox Subsidiaries in an International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) arbitration proceeding in Miami, Florida, filed in 2001. The ICC arbitration panel unanimously ruled against Petroplus in a final decision in November 2003 (Final ICC Arbitration Award). The Final ICC Arbitration Award was ratified by the Superior Court of Justice of Brazil in May 2007 (Foreign Judgment), and the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida subsequently confirmed the Final ICC Arbitration Award and recognized and adopted the Foreign Judgment as a judgment of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida (U.S. Judgment). Despite this, in March 2008, a Brazilian lower court ruled against the Company and Glad in the pending lawsuit and awarded Petroplus R$23 ($13) plus interest. The value of that judgment, including interest and foreign exchange fluctuations as of June 30, 2014, was approximately $39.
Among other defenses, because the Final ICC Arbitration Award, the Foreign Judgment and the U.S. Judgment relate to the same claims as those in the pending lawsuit, the Company believes that Petroplus is precluded from re-litigating these claims. Based on the unfavorable appellate court decision, the Company believes that it is reasonably possible that a loss could be incurred in this matter in excess of amounts accrued, and that the estimated range of such loss in this matter is from $0 to $33. The Company continues to believe that its defenses are meritorious, and has appealed the decision to the highest courts of Brazil. In the first stage of the appellate process, in December 2013, the appellate court declined to admit the Company's appeals to the highest courts. The Company then appealed directly to the highest courts and in May 2014, the Supreme Court of Justice agreed to consider the Company's appeal. Expenses related to this litigation and any potential additional loss would be reflected in discontinued operations, consistent with the Company's classification of expenses related to its discontinued Brazil operations.
In a separate action filed in 2004 by Petroplus, a lower Brazilian court in January 2013 nullified the Final ICC Arbitration Award. The Company believes this judgment is inconsistent with the Foreign Judgment and the U.S. Judgment and that it is without merit. The Company appealed this decision, and the lower court decision was overturned by the appellate court in April 2014. Petroplus has appealed this decision to Brazil's highest court.
Glad and the Clorox Subsidiaries have also filed separate lawsuits against Petroplus alleging misuse of the STP trademark and related matters, which are currently pending before Brazilian courts, and have taken other legal actions against Petroplus, which are pending. Additionally, in November 2013, the Clorox Subsidiaries initiated a new ICC arbitration seeking damages against Petroplus.
The Company is subject to various lawsuits, claims and other loss contingencies relating to issues such as contract disputes, product liability, patents and trademarks, advertising, and employee and other matters. Based on management's analysis, it is the opinion of management that the ultimate disposition of these matters, to the extent not previously provided for, will not have a material adverse effect, individually or in the aggregate, on the Company's consolidated financial statements taken as a whole.
In conjunction with divestitures and other transactions, the Company may provide typical indemnifications (e.g., indemnifications for representations and warranties and retention of previously existing environmental, tax and employee liabilities) that have terms that vary in duration and in the potential amount of the total obligation and, in many circumstances, are not explicitly defined. The Company has not made, nor does it believe that it is probable that it will make, any payments relating to its indemnifications, and believes that any reasonably possible payments would not have a material adverse effect, individually or in the aggregate, on the Company's consolidated financial statements taken as a whole.
The Company had not recorded any liabilities on the aforementioned guarantees as of June 30, 2014 and 2013.
As of June 30, 2014, the Company was a party to letters of credit of $12, primarily related to one of its insurance carriers, of which $0 had been drawn upon.
NOTE 13. STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
On May 13, 2013, the Company's board of directors terminated the share repurchase programs previously authorized on May 13, 2008, and May 18, 2011, and authorized a new share repurchase program for an aggregate purchase amount of up to $750. This open market share repurchase program is in addition to the Company's evergreen repurchase program (Evergreen Program), the purpose of which is to offset the impact of stock dilution related to stock-based awards. The Evergreen Program has no authorization limit as to amount or timing of repurchases.
Share repurchases under authorized programs were as follows during the fiscal years ended June 30:
|Open-market purchase programs||$||-||-||$||-||-||$||158||2,429|
During fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012, the Company declared dividends per share of $2.87, $2.63 and $2.44, respectively, and paid dividends per share of $2.84, $2.56 and $2.40, respectively.
In February 2013, the FASB issued an update to current accounting standards related to disclosures of reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive income. The presentation requirements were adopted by the Company effective July 1, 2013, and are reflected below.
Changes in accumulated other comprehensive net losses by component were as follows:
(losses) gains on
|Balance as of June 30, 2012, net of tax||$||(198||)||$||(33||)||$||(165||)||$||(396||)|
|Other comprehensive (loss) income|
|Amounts reclassified from accumulated other|
|comprehensive net losses||-||3||6||9|
|Net other comprehensive (loss) income||(11||)||3||37||29|
|Balance as of June 30, 2013, net of tax||$||(209||)||$||(30||)||$||(128||)||$||(367||)|
|Other comprehensive losses|
|Amounts reclassified from accumulated other|
|comprehensive net losses||-||-||5||5|
|Net other comprehensive losses||(37||)||(9||)||(4||)||(50||)|
|Balance as of June 30, 2014, net of tax||$||(246||)||$||(39||)||$||(132||)||$||(417||)|
Pension and postretirement benefit reclassification adjustments are reflected in cost of products sold and selling and administrative expenses.
NOTE 14. NET EARNINGS PER SHARE (EPS)
The following is the reconciliation of the weighted average number of shares outstanding (in thousands) used to calculate basic net EPS to those used to calculate diluted net EPS:
|Dilutive effect of stock options and other||2,184||1,894||1,458|
During fiscal years 2014 and 2013, the Company included all stock options to purchase shares of the Company's common stock in the calculations of diluted net EPS because the average market price was greater than the exercise price of all outstanding options.
During fiscal year 2012, the Company did not include stock options to purchase approximately 1.8 million shares of the Company's common stock in the calculations of diluted net EPS because their exercise price was greater than the average market price, making them anti-dilutive.
NOTE 15. STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION PLANS
In November 2012, the Company's stockholders voted to approve the amended and restated 2005 Stock Incentive Plan (Plan). The Plan permits the Company to grant various nonqualified stock-based compensation awards, including stock options, restricted stock, performance units, deferred stock units, stock appreciation rights and other stock-based awards. The primary amendment reflected in the Plan was an increase of approximately 3 million common shares that may be issued for stock-based compensation purposes. As of June 30, 2014, the Company is authorized to grant up to approximately 7 million common shares under the Plan and, as of June 30, 2014, approximately 6 million shares were available for grant.
Compensation cost and the related income tax benefit recognized for stock-based compensation plans were classified as indicated below for the fiscal years ended June 30.
|Cost of products sold||$||4||$||4||$||3|
|Selling and administrative expenses||29||28||22|
|Research and development costs||3||3||2|
|Total compensation cost||$||36||$||35||$||27|
|Related income tax benefit||$||13||$||13||$||10|
Cash received during fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012 from stock options exercised under all stock-based payment arrangements was $86, $121 and $79, respectively. The Company issues shares for stock-based compensation plans from treasury stock. The Company may repurchase shares under its Evergreen Program to offset the estimated impact of share dilution related to stock-based awards (Note 13 Stockholders' Equity).
Details regarding the valuation and accounting for stock options, restricted stock awards, performance units and deferred stock units for non-employee directors follow.
The fair value of each stock option award granted during fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012 was estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes valuation model and assumptions noted in the following table:
|Expected life||5.7 years||5.7 years||4.9 - 5.7 years|
|Weighted-average expected life||5.7 years||5.7 years||5.7 years|
|Expected volatility||18.4% to 18.5%||18.7% to 19.2%||21.9% to 25.9%|
|Risk-free interest rate||1.8% to 1.9%||0.6% to 0.8%||0.9% to 1.1%|
|Weighted-average risk-free interest rate||1.8%||0.7%||0.9%|
|Weighted-average dividend yield||3.4%||3.6%||3.5%|
The expected life of the stock options is based on observed historical exercise patterns. Groups of employees having similar historical exercise behavior are considered separately for valuation purposes. The Company estimates stock option forfeitures based on historical data for employee groups. The total number of stock options expected to vest is adjusted by actual and estimated forfeitures.
The expected volatility is based on implied volatility from publicly traded options on the Company's stock at the date of grant, historical implied volatility of the Company's publicly traded options and other factors. The risk-free interest rate is based on the implied yield on a U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issue with a remaining term equal to the expected term of the option. The dividend yield is based on the projected annual dividend payment per share, divided by the stock price at the date of grant.
Details of the Company's stock option activities are summarized below:
|Options outstanding as of June 30, 2013||10,257||$||65||7 years||$||184|
|Options outstanding as of June 30, 2014||10,368||$||69||6 years||$||232|
|Options vested as of June 30, 2014||5,772||$||64||5 years||$||159|
The weighted-average fair value per share of each option granted during fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012, estimated at the grant date using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, was $9.69, $6.96 and $9.24, respectively. The total intrinsic value of options exercised in fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012 was $42, $45 and $29, respectively.
Stock option awards outstanding as of June 30, 2014, have been granted at prices that are either equal to or above the market value of the stock on the date of grant. Stock option grants generally vest over four years and expire no later than ten years after the grant date. The Company recognizes compensation expense ratably over the vesting period. As of June 30, 2014, there was $17 of total unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested options, which is expected to be recognized over a remaining weighted-average vesting period of one year, subject to forfeiture changes.
Restricted Stock Awards
The fair value of restricted stock awards is estimated on the date of grant based on the market price of the stock and is amortized to compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the related vesting periods, which are generally three to four years. The total number of restricted stock awards expected to vest is adjusted by actual and estimated forfeitures. Restricted stock grants receive dividend distributions earned during the vesting period upon vesting.
As of June 30, 2014, there was $1 of total unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested restricted stock awards, which is expected to be recognized over a remaining weighted-average vesting period of one year. The total fair value of the shares that vested in fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012 was less than $1, $1 and $3, respectively. The weighted-average grant-date fair value of awards granted was $89.25, $72.28 and $68.52 per share for fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
A summary of the status of the Company's restricted stock awards as of June 30 is presented below:
|Restricted stock awards as of June 30, 2013||11||$||68|
|Restricted stock awards as of June 30, 2014||21||$||81|
The Company's performance unit grants provide for the issuance of common stock to certain managerial staff and executive management if the Company achieves certain performance targets. The performance period is three years and the final payout determination is made at the end of the three-year performance period. Performance unit grants receive dividends earned during the vesting period upon vesting.
The fair value of each grant issued is estimated on the date of grant based on the current market price of the stock. The total amount of compensation expense recognized reflects actual and estimated forfeitures, and the initial assumption that performance goals will be achieved. Compensation expense is adjusted, as necessary, on a quarterly basis based on management's assessment of the probability that performance goals will be achieved. If such goals are not met or it is determined that achievement of performance goals is not probable, any previously recognized compensation expense is adjusted in the current period to reflect the expected payout level. If it is determined that the performance goals will be exceeded, additional compensation expense is recognized, subject to a cap of 150% of the grant day target.
The number of shares issued will be dependent upon vesting and the achievement of specified performance targets. As of June 30, 2014, there was $19 in unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested performance unit grants that is expected to be recognized over a remaining weighted-average performance period of one year. The weighted-average grant-date fair value of awards granted was $84.45, $72.11 and $68.17 per share for fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
A summary of the status of the Company's performance unit awards as of June 30 is presented below:
|Performance unit awards as of June 30, 2013||1,335||$||66|
|Performance unit awards as of June 30, 2014||1,221|